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000-M246 IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test(R) v1

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000-M246 exam Dumps Source : IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test(R) v1

Test Code : 000-M246
Test name : IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test(R) v1
Vendor name : IBM
: 50 true Questions

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IBM IBM Smarter Commerce Sales

large Blue Launches IBM ExperienceOne to mingle advertising, income, services | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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inspecting IBM's Sale Of Retail stores options | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

No outcome discovered, try original key phrase!Toshiba TEC (OTC:TSHTF) will acquire IBM's (IBM) retail store aspect-of-sale options business. The agreement permits both to faucet the turning out to exist smarter commerce probability. A multi-yr enterprise confederate ...

Smarter commerce results in happier consumers | killexams.com true Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Happy shopper card

In trendy ever extra linked world buyers fill lots better expectations of the agencies they deal with.

They covet groups to account their preferences and bring a customized, profitable event. What's more they await this everything of the time no longer simply at the aspect of sale.

To aid organizations carry for their shoppers IBM is the usage of its Smarter Commerce international pinnacle in Florida to unveil ExperienceOne, an integrated portfolio of cloud-primarily based and on premise offerings to compile advertising, earnings and service practices and support create deeper, extra effectual client engagements.

IBM ExperienceOne draws on innovation from IBM analysis in addition to more than $3 billion invested in biological evolution and acquisitions. it's additionally developed on model practices drawn from IBM's adventure of working with over 8,000 groups throughout the globe.

"Smarter Commerce is set assisting purchasers consistently reinvent themselves around the customer experience," says Craig Hayman, benchmark manager, industry Cloud options at IBM. "IBM ExperienceOne gives a cozy and simplified portfolio -- together with innovation from greater than 1,200 partners -- to assist customers design and deliver extra helpful consumer engagements. With cloud, on premise and hybrid alternate options, IBM ExperienceOne perquisite now scales to engage each customer in the second whereas conserving their privateness".

New capabilities abet to augment understanding of consumer relationships, maximize earnings with the aid of directing the remedy present to the usurp customer, and gain employ of cell and social media to deliver better consumer event. Combining ExperienceOne with SoftLayer cloud infrastructure IBM is additionally capable of proffer client statistics, client analytics and digital commerce as a provider.

The business is aiming to carry an identical ranges of consumer insight to the B2B sector as well with the launch of recent companion and agency engagement utility by the employ of its Smarter Commerce initiative. This comprises a Multi-enterprise Relationship administration (MRM) platform for more desirable collaboration. IBM Sterling B2B capabilities Reporting and Analytics to computer screen transactions and aid enterprise spot tendencies and gain recommended decisions. Plus different apparatus proffer stronger adherence to compliance requisites and faster and greater efficient sharing of records.

"Now more than ever, the kismet of any enterprise is deeply intertwined with the success of its community of companions and suppliers around the world," says John Mesberg, vice president, B2B & Commerce solutions at IBM. "by using orchestrating these complicated engagements with superb precision and perception, corporations can create original gateways to alternate that enable organizations to bring outstanding consumer experiences. With these days’s information, IBM basically transforms these dynamics with partners and shoppers to power sooner time to income throughout the extended value chain".

that you would exist able to learn more about IBM ExperienceOne on the business's website. there is additionally an infographic on how Smarter Commerce can carry greater customer engagement below.

IBM-Summit-Infographic S

photo credit score: Sergey Nivens / Shutterstock


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IBM Smarter Commerce Sales Mastery Test(R) v1

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Ten IT and industry Benefits of Cloud-Based Integration | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

With today's global and distributed commerce, organizations of everything sizes are having to collaborate and exchange information with a growing ecosystem of divisions, partners and customers. Most companies want to communicate electronically and in true time, but beyond email, managing the exchange of data, messages and documents can exist challenging and expensive.

Traditional EDI, networks or point-to-point integration systems are not providing the interoperability, agility and real-time information exchange businesses exigency to compete. In addition, companies exigency to enact more than merely exchange data; they exigency to integrate complete industry processes, such as procurement, supply chain management, eCommerce, profit claims processing, or logistics, to name just a few.

As with other technologies, integration solutions are poignant to the cloud in order to provide this increased flexibility and complexity. Today, there are an increasing number of technology vendors giving customers a election of traditional on-premise integration - where the company manages the connections, mapping and industry processes itself - or cloud-based products with tenacious self-service or managed service support.

While the cloud may not exist usurp for every company or solution, it is an model platform for integration, as it enables seamless interaction and collaboration across communities and systems. From limpid economic benefits to increased IT agility to true industry impact, a cloud-based integration solution brings value across the IT and industry aspects of the organization. Below we've outlined the top 10 IT and industry benefits of conducting multi-enterprise integration in the cloud.

  • Improved confederate and customer relations and retention
  • Increased revenue and margin
  • Improved order accuracy
  • Faster time-to-market
  • Greater competitive advantage
  • Reduced costs and capital expenditures (CapEx)
  • Increased operational efficiencies and reduced manual processes, allowing ways to lag headcount to more strategic projects.
  • Extended investments in legacy applications and systems
  • Aligning IT with industry goals
  • Scalability and flexibility
  • Let's ogle at each of these in a bit more detail with real-world examples.

    1. Improved confederate and customer relations and retentionCompanies must gain it easy to enact industry with them - it's no longer realistic to Tell suppliers to adhere to a separate format, such as EDI, as companies fill investments in applications and systems they exigency to extend. Plus customers fill more choices than ever before, so if you gain it arduous for a customer (or partner) to exchange information with you, they will Go to a competitor.

    A considerable illustration of this is a mid-sized electrical supply distributor, Mayer Electric Supply. An increasing amount of its industry was being conducted online, but its eCommerce site and related processes were not keeping pace with customer demands, many of whom were big multinational organizations. Mayer chose to bring its online catalog in-house, having its internal IT team rework the catalog and manage the system, but it turned to a cloud-based integration platform to manage the eCommerce "punchout" and integrated purchase order exchange. This enabled everything customers to shop with Mayer directly from their existing procurement systems and incorporate the process into its overall procurement travail flow. The result for Mayer was improved customer retention and increased order size.

    2. Increased revenue and marginOne of the greatest growth areas for cloud-based integration is in demand chain processes, because companies realize that keeping customers nearby and improving customer-facing industry processes has a direct impact on the top and bottom line. With the companies we've surveyed, everything of them fill experienced improved metrics around retention, order size, revenue and margin.

    Take, for example, Invitrogen (now Life Technologies Corp.), a $3 billion per-year supplier to the global life sciences community. The company wanted to better its customers' online industry undergo to augment revenues. By leveraging a cloud-based integration solution, Invitrogen was able to accept transactions from diverse customer procurement systems via its website and rationalize an order management system that encompassed more than a dozen platforms. Invitrogen saw orders mount 29 percent after an account was integrated.

    3. Improved order accuracyOver the eventual decade, they fill seen a significant augment in demand for integrating eCommerce and procurement processes. These include procure-to-pay, order-to-cash and "punchout." By using a cloud-based integration solution, the undergo to integrate these processes is seamless for customers and suppliers. One key profit of this, as mentioned above, is increased revenue, but there is furthermore a secondary profit around order accuracy. One eCommerce company saw order accuracy better to 99% after implementing a cloud-based integration process with its customers, improving inventory management and delivery times, and removing manual intervention from the process.

    4. Faster time-to-marketAcross industries and markets, there is an increasing customer coerce around the "power of now. Customers want to receive products and services more quickly and with less effort. This is quite related to the overall trend around the consumerization of industry technology, as industry people want the same undergo at travail that they receive shopping or researching online at home. This requires significant improvements in industry agility and in the skill to deliver products more efficiently to meet fast-moving markets. To achieve this, companies must travail more closely than ever with suppliers, distributors, retailers and partners.

    Cloud-based industry integration enables real-time collaboration and the exchange of information surrounding logistics, parts, designs, inventory, customer order trends, procurement and other captious processes. Being able to receive messages in a matter of hours versus days or weeks can gain the inequity between getting the deal or not.

    5. Greater competitive advantageThe ease of cloud-based integration can furthermore abet companies win original customers and boost market share, enabling small to mid-sized businesses to compete directly with much larger players. In addition, integration can ensure that companies can seamlessly travail with customers and partners by not requiring that everything industry processes occur in a particular format, which may not exist compatible with the format that the customer or confederate is using.

    For example, Office Depot turned a shortcoming that kept it from fulfilling portions of orders from customers into a competitive advantage. By poignant specific transactions to a cloud-based integration platform, Office Depot was able to seamlessly travail with a diverse set of customers using many different procurement systems. The result: A "gain in market share with very minute investment."

    6. Reduced costs and capital expenditures (CapEx)Traditional integration solutions can exist costly, often require a specialized and expensive skill set from workers, and are recumbent to demolish at the slightest change in format or schema. Furthermore, IT departments are usually under pressure from the industry side to better IT operations and abet drive greater revenue or industry impact, but rarely are given the additional resources to enact so.

    Integrating existing systems through cloud-based integration helps companies avoid or retard the costs of replacing infrastructure. The Software as a Service (SaaS) subscription pricing model allows funds for integration to exist moved from the capital budget to the operating budget, making integration easier to felicitous into the IT budget, and enabling IT to expend capital on other more capex-intensive projects.

    7. Increased operational efficienciesSome of the greatest gains in operational efficiency foster from transitional manual processes to automated ones. As they know, this furthermore tends to reduce costs and better accuracy. With cloud-based integration, fewer people exigency to manage connections and transactions, as it enables frictionless system-to-system industry processes automation.

    While every IT team needs to point to operational improvements, nearly everyone they talk to is worried that cloud or SaaS-based solutions will connote a reduction in IT staff. They fill not had one customer undergo where this has occurred. On the contrary, what they fill seen is IT staff moved to more strategic projects or to working on original innovations to drive industry growth.

    A considerable illustration of this is with the consumer products division of Cisco, which uses cloud-based industry integration to abet manage and automate key processes across a growing, global distribution network. While the company says the lag to the cloud saved it the costs of two full-time staff, the IT team that had previously managed EDI connections and translations were moved to manage confederate relationships and strategic projects.

    The same is trusty for Whirlpool Corporation, whose North American CIO emphasizes that IT people are focused on managing strategic relationships and projects, and the company leverages the cloud and technology partners to manage much of its infrastructure and integration requirements.

    8. Extended investments in legacy applications and systemsIntegration can extend the life of legacy assets by enabling everything members in the integration community to travail from existing systems. With cloud-based solutions, there is no "rip and replace" required, and there should exist minimal to no software or hardware required behind the firewall. This is a considerable route to upgrade industry processes or better efficiencies without having to invest heavily in solutions or migrate processes to a original system. This interoperability and extension of systems is a captious understanding many companies are turning to cloud-based integration solutions.

    9. Aligns IT with industry goalsHow many times fill IT leaders heard it's everything about "business technology" and making sure IT impacts the business? Wouldn't it exist nice to find a solution that provides this alignment with minute effort? industry integration is one of those areas that is truly a win-win. Oftentimes, it is the line of industry that discovers the exigency for improved integration, such as the logistics, procurement or eCommerce manager, where there is a limpid stitch and a exigency to better processes. By working with the industry on integration challenges and using cloud-based solutions to manage it, you can quickly achieve industry impact without negatively impacting your IT budget or goals.

    10. easy scalability and flexibilityDuring the recent economic downturn, it was more primary than ever for companies to fill the option to scale back on IT and in some cases integration costs. With an on-demand integration solution, companies can quickly and easily augment or abate connections, transactions or the number of companies in their integration community, and then scale back up when industry requires it. In addition, one of the greatest benefits of cloud solutions is the skill to start small and expand as needed, when you are ready.

    These are some of the top ways companies can descry measureable IT and industry benefits from a SaaS-based integration solution, many of which are realized in a matter of weeks or months. Integration enables industry process automation across the supply chain, demand chain, generic operations, procurement, eCommerce and other industry areas. A SaaS-based integration solution can furthermore abet remove the challenge of traditional industry integration methods while delivering substantial industry and IT value.

    Beyond the transaction, it can provide visibility into industry processes, confederate operations and customer needs. Benefits are realized across an entire organization, from industry units to IT to the CIO, providing predictable costs, greater operational efficiency, higher margins and revenues, and automated industry processes. For these reasons and others, business-to-business integration should exist a key constituent of consideration for any company's overall strategy.


    Media As a Shaping Agent of Society: Wherefore craft Thou Treacherous? | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    “Fake News”: A Classic Statecraft Misdirect and Naiveté Writ Large

    What, prey tell, explains how David took down Goliath? The ragtag lion coalition of “rebels with causes” and Deplorables with axes to grind had the surreptitious sauce: TIS. social media was the sling and acute messages were the rocks and together they tattooed “TIS” perquisite between her eyes:

    Mark Zuckerberg is trying arduous to convince voters that Facebook had no nefarious role in this election. “Our biggest incubator that allowed us to generate that money was Facebook,” says Parscale, who has been working for the thrust since before Trump officially announced his candidacy a year and a half ago. “Facebook and Twitter were the understanding they won this thing,” he says. “Twitter for Mr. Trump. And Facebook for fundraising.” They eminent how Clinton spent more than $200 million on television ads in the final months of the election while Trump spent less than half that. Because Trump wasn’t spending as much on television everything along, it seemed relish his team wasn’t investing in changing anyone’s minds. But they were: they were just doing it online.

    Coby’s team took full odds of the skill to accomplish massive tests with its ads. On any given day, Coby says, the thrust was running 40,000 to 50,000 variants of its ads, testing how they performed in different formats, with subtitles and without, and static versus video, among other small differences. On the day of the third presidential debate in October, the team ran 175,000 variations. Coby calls this approach “A/B testing on steroids.” The more variations the team was able to produce, Coby says, the higher the likelihood that its ads would actually exist served to Facebook users. “Every ad network and platform wants to serve the ad that’s going to collect the most engagement,” Coby says.

    (Source: WIRED, Issie Lapowsky, November 15, 2016, “Here’s How Facebook Actually Won Trump the Presidency”)

    This is the network structure of both political media thrust propaganda strategies: MSM are the big, old-school broadcasting networks near the hub dominated by DNC influence per the WikiLeaks disclosures and then there are smaller but soundless substantial alternative media sites and then an extremely long tail of interconnections of small sites and social media where the RNC took the fight. The “underground” more bidirectional communications (blogs with comments) and social media won this round — both campaigns employ dis/misinformation (“fake news”) to influential the electorate using different tools. Which regions are RED and which are BLUE? (Source: spatial map by Jonathan Albright, coadjutant professor of communications at Elon University, North Carolina, “Google, democracy and the veracity about internet search”, The Guardian)

    [Enlarge the above image]

    The “shocking result” given that The original York Times predicted a 85% desultory for conquest the day before the election quickly turned to the issue of the influence of “fake news” on the election outcome. Every sage from mainstream media (MSM) to alternative media was focused on “how can they liquidate fake news?” or witch-hunting sequel Zuckerberg et al; this wavelength of thought presumes that fake word must exist quelled no matter the cost (which is beyond calculation). This thinking is remedy if word = veracity matters. But through the lens of reality — meaning surgical-strike propaganda — this view is gravely naive. What, you say? veracity doesn’t matter?

    Here is a brief primer through the lens of reality that incorporates TIS, which spawned in embryonic shape in George Orwell’s novel 1984:

    The first-edition front cover of the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four first published in 1949. (Source: Wikipedia (public domain))

    1984 has four themes:

  • Nationalism;
  • Futurology;
  • Censorship; and
  • Surveillance
  • (Source: 1984, Wikipedia)

    All of these themes are intertwined and managed with communication through the “Ministry of Truth” which is brilliantly crafted and executed propaganda. Nationalism has already been addressed. In review, Goebbels, Hitler, and Ellul created the operating principles and coincident examples of Nationalism are:

  • Bush: “With us or against us”;
  • Trump: “Building a wall” (literal or figurative xenophobia); and
  • Clinton: “Basket of deplorables” or, more refined: “I’m with → HER (and, therefore, NOT with…).”
  • The relentless bombard of semantic payloads. | (DIS)INFORMATION: Mutually Assured Mental Destruction, Alicia Wanless, (Source :La Generalista)

    Question: Who enact you mediate creates the semantic payloads?

    Hint: Not the candidates.

    All of these statements are crafted to trigger target audiences to buy sides (polarize into tribes and fight for me, for us, for their country, their route of life, their flag, etc.).

    From 1984’s Ministry of Truth:

    The keyword here is blackwhite. relish so many Newspeak words, this word has two mutually contradictory meanings. Applied to an opponent, it means the habit of impudently claiming that black is white, in contradiction of the plain facts. Applied to a Party member, it means a loyal willingness to allege that black is white when Party discipline demands this. But it means furthermore the skill to believe that black is white, and more, to know that black is white, and to forget that one has ever believed the contrary.

    Note: stress mine

    (Source: Part II, Chapter IX — “The Theory and drill of Oligarchical Collectivism”, which is from a “nonfiction reserve within a fictional novel” written by a character in 1984)

    To abet help you grasp the scale of global naiveté in proper context, this is from Johns Hopkins University’s Sheridan Libraries:

    The World Wide Web offers information and data from everything over the world. Because so much information is available, and because that information can issue to exist fairly “anonymous”, it is necessary to develop skills to evaluate what you find. When you employ a research or academic library, the books, journals and other resources fill already been evaluated by scholars, publishers and librarians. Every resource you find has been evaluated in one route or another before you ever descry it. A lot of considerable information can exist found online, but it’s trickier to know what has been peer-reviewed online and what has not, because anyone can write a web page. Excellent resources reside along side the most dubious. The Internet epitomizes the concept of caveat lector: let the reader beware.

    and

    What constitutes a honorable fake is how well it resembles the true thing.

    Propaganda is defined as the “systematic propagation of information or ideas by an interested party, esp. in a tendentious route in order to encourage or instill a particular attitude or response. Also, the ideas, doctrines, etc., disseminated thus; the vehicle of such propagation.” (from Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., 1989)

    Misinformation is defined as the action of misinforming or condition of being misinformed; or erroneous or incorrect information. Misinformation differs from propaganda in that it always refers to something which is not true. It differs from disinformation in that it is “intention neutral”: it isn’t deliberate, it’s just wrong or mistaken.

    Never underestimate the evil intentions of some individuals or institutions to allege or write whatever suits a particular purpose, even when it requires deliberate fabrication. Disinformation refers to disseminating deliberately unsuitable information, especially when supplied by a government or its agent to a exotic power or on the media with the objective of influencing policies of those who receive it.

    Note: stress mine

    (Source: Johns Hopkins University (Sheridan Libraries), Information and Its Counterfeits: Propaganda, Misinformation and Disinformation)

    Which takes us from the clinical world of “fact checking (think safe sex)” in academic settings where credibility and veracity means everything to the nasty swamp of unrestrained, feral TIS where veracity is for losers which was lucidly foreshadowed by:

    “We’ll know their disinformation program is complete when everything the American public believes is false.”

    — William Casey, CIA Director, 1981

    In other words, when black is white and white is black (“blackwhite”), they will finally fill achieved harmony from some alien perspective.

    “BLACK is WHITE” | Logo for INGSOC political party in 1984. (used in 1984 film adaptation) (Source: Wikimedia | CC BY-SA 3.0)

    Category: Trends | killexams.com true questions and Pass4sure dumps

    October 31st, 2018 in industry Practices, tumble 2018, Millennial, Restaurants, Technology, Trends

    By Tyler Titherington

    I am a restaurateur.  I’m behind schedule.  Again.  Not because I am disorganized or fill too much to do, more so because I fill a hierarchy of tasks that are addressed based on priority.  Guest needs are my first priority, staff needs are a nearby second and everything else last.  There is a tertiary hierarchy in the eventual basket as well.  Some tasks with a lower priority tumble through the cracks.  Not because they are unimportant, but rather there just was not enough time.  The veracity is that I am obsessively organized.  I savor “To Do” lists, calendars, flux charts and the accomplishment of tasks.  I devour projects for breakfast, while living on the edge of chaos and complete catastrophe.  Short staffed?  Yawn.  Drains flooding?  Been there, done that.  POS system crash during service on a weekend?  Bring it.  I am the duck – tranquil above water and feet poignant nonstop below.  However, how enact I manage everything the curveballs and soundless manage to gain time without compromising any of my other priorities?  It is very simple – accommodate and embrace technology wherever possible, specifically, cloud-based computing solutions that allow one to exist in many places at one time.  These applications simplify daily tasks for management teams and staff, which will ultimately leverage senior management down to focus on the bigger picture.  Maybe even collect a day off…

    Over the eventual 10 years or so, the increased availability of cloud-based computing solutions (using network computers over the internet rather than property-based arduous drives) has been a major paradigm shift for many industries.  However, as with most technological advances, the restaurant industry has been very behind to adapt.  taut margins, resistance to change, and alert of unknown outcomes fill long driven the restaurateur’s decision-making process.  However, with increased options, cheaper costs, and ease of use, that mindset is quickly becoming a thing of the past.  Restaurant operators are dawn to embrace cloud-based solutions for everything from Point of Sale and Tableside Payment to Menu Design and Scheduling.

    Our foray into cloud computing began with an hapless set of circumstances that the entire industry was facing.  The year was 2010 and the impending doom of PCI Compliance was upon us.  At best, their network infrastructure was dated and they needed to act quickly to collect it into compliance.  relish most operators, their hand was forced and they had no choice.  What is PCI Compliance?  The retort depends on who you ask.

    Your guests fill never heard of it and fill no notion what it is.  Most restaurant operators will Tell you that PCI Compliance is an almost unachievable set of network security standards designed to protect the credit card giants, who already charge them route too much for credit card processing and continually squeeze them with a plethora of monthly fees.  The definition of PCI Compliance is below, according to PCI ComplianceGuide.org

    “The Payment Card Industry Data Security benchmark (PCI DSS) is a set of security standards designed to ensure that everything companies that accept, process, store or transmit credit card information maintain a secure environment.  The PCI Security Council Card focuses on improving payment account security throughout the transaction process. It is an independent cadaver that was created by the major payment card brands (Visa, MasterCard, American Express, learn and JCB.).”[i]

    PCI DSS is mandatory for any and everything businesses that accept credit cards.  It involves a process of assessment, remediation and reporting.  Operators must identify network vulnerabilities, physical vulnerabilities, and operational vulnerabilities that could result in a credit card infraction and fix them.  In summary, it is a painfully tedious, extremely time consuming, and potentially expensive process.

    It is extremely primary for the security of their guest’s payment information, both for ensuring confidence with their customers and limiting legal liabilities.  In 2017-8, major retail stores including Home Depot, Macy’s, Sears, Kmart, Best Buy and Lord & Taylor made headlines across the country for data breaches possibly compromising customer’s credit card personal information. The restaurant industry is furthermore plagued with security breaches, including big chains such as Darden (Cheddar’s), Panera Bread, Sonic and Arby’s. The number of customers whose credit card information may exist compromised totals into the millions.[ii]

    At Grafton Group, the process of obtaining Credit card security involved working directly with their IT vendor and POS vendor to achieve PCI compliance.  The first order of industry was to collect their network infrastructure in order.  Some of the major network upgrades that they undertook were upgrading wiring, locking down patch panels, securitizing external ports, adding wireless access points (WAPs), and replacing firewalls. The WAPs and original firewalls were the heart of the upgrades and would ultimately allow us to operate unencumbered in the cloud.  The original access points give their guests their own network and forestall them from accessing ours.  The security firewalls forestall intrusions and furthermore allow their IT vendor remote access so they can gain changes without actually being in the restaurant.  What used to exist a scheduled visit from their IT vendor that may fill taken weeks, is now a simple email and can often exist addressed online in minutes.  In a nutshell, PCI DSS forced us to upgrade their network, which ultimately allowed us to operate in the cloud.  This unintended outcome to a painful requirement was truly a blessing in mask and it pushed us into original territory – the cloud!  Being in the cloud has allowed us access to exciting applications and services that would otherwise exist unavailable to us.

    IBM defines cloud computing as “the delivery of on-demand computing resources — everything from applications to data centers — over the internet on a pay-for-use basis.”[iii]  For their purposes, these on demand computing resources primarily consist of “SaaS” or Software as a Service.  Here are some of the areas where cloud computing can streamline their operation.

    Point of Sale

    POS systems are the most exciting zone of cloud-based solutions for restaurant operators.  Legacy systems such as Positouch, Micros, and Aloha are bulkier, more expensive, and much harder to program and implement.  There are quite a few cloud-based POS options, most notably Boston-based Toast.  Toast has done a considerable job streamlining and simplifying the interface for both front and back conclude users.  Management can access the system remotely for screen programming, troubleshooting or reviewing sales.  It is extremely intuitive, relish using a smartphone, thus needing very minute training. As wireless POS solutions evolve, legacy systems will eventually exist phased out.  It is only a matter of time.

    Tableside Payment

    EMV (Europay, MasterCard and Visa) is another set of regulations that are coming to the restaurant industry. “EMV is a global benchmark for cards equipped with computer chips and the technology used to authenticate chip-card transactions.”[iv]  Used in Europe for years, the credit card never leaves the customer and everything transactions are processed tableside with a handheld device. One illustration of an EMV compliant, cloud-based device for tableside payments that they at Grafton Group are currently analyzing and device on implementing is Pay My Tab.  Pay My Tab will fully integrate with their POS system and eliminates many bulky PCI DSS requirements. Many similar systems are already in employ at quick service operations, where guests and staff fill easily adapted to them.  In addition to tougher security, the implementation should abate payment time, liquidate paper receipts (emailed instead) and simplify the process for management to search for specific receipts.

    Reservations and Floor Management

    There are a variety of solutions for reservations and floor management systems.  Their solid has been using OpenTable for over 15 years, so when they rolled out their cloud-based system, GuestCenter, they were early adopters.  This has been one of the separate best applications in terms of roll out, ease of use, and seamless integration.  It is iPad-based and eliminates everything the wiring and host stand true estate.  It is compatible to smart phones that allows for remote access, allowing management to check flux of service, identify unique reservations, and gain sure that waitlists are being managed appropriately.  Soon to foster is an interface with POS systems that automatically applies any “guest notes” from GuestCenter to the server’s check, such as special occasions, etc. Most importantly, due to its intuitive design, their millennial hosts employ the system seamlessly.

    Private Event Management

    Private events are the foundation of most full service restaurant operations.  They are the inequity between a honorable week and a considerable week.  However, it can exist a very confusing process with everything of the poignant parts.  In order to tarry organized, they employ TripleSeat to manage leads, create BEOs and track their events calendar. The cloud-based event management system allows their Private Event Coordinators to respond at any given time from anywhere, giving them a leg up on the competition, giving them the break to earn fees for each event.  Since their coordinators receive an administrative fee for each event, they indulge in responding when available off-site; honorable communication is key for making sure work-life equilibrium is maintained.

    Bar at the Russell House Tavern in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Inventory

    An zone which the cloud has really saved their restaurants time is with food & beverage inventories.  No more paper and no more transposing paper to spreadsheet.  Inventories can exist uploaded in true time using a tablet, laptop or even a smart phone. BevSpot is used for both their food and beverage inventories.  They fill furthermore given access to their accounting firm, in order to reduce bulky invoice scans and uploads.  everything information can exist entered into the cloud and accessed by everything of their approved users.  It furthermore allows for multiple people to buy inventory simultaneously.  One person can exist on the bar, another in the walk in fridge, and another in the liquor room, everything at the same time.  In addition to being a major time saver, it has helped Grafton Group to reduce sitting inventory by a significant amount across everything properties.

    Scheduling

    Staff scheduling is a weekly administrative headache for managers, but there are cloud-based scheduling applications that lessen the pain. They fill found HotSchedules to felicitous their needs as it interfaces with their POS system and allows their solid to enact some creative reporting in regards to budgeting and forecasting, as well as taking employees requests and requirements into consideration.

    Email and File Sharing

    Grafton Group has foster a long route from sharing access to a desktop version of Outlook and toggling between accounts.  They were able to liquidate their main server entirely and now they employ Office 365 for their email and file sharing needs.  Not only is this highly securitized, it has redundancy so their information is always backed up.  They access both their email and files from anywhere in the world.  This has greatly improved productivity and allowed their management teams to communicate in true time.

    Grafton Street in Cambridge, MA. Photo: graftongrouphospitality.com Computer Hardware

    Our office hardware now consists of much less expensive “Network Computers”, which enact not require expanded reminiscence for giant programs, CD drives for downloading drivers, or expansion slots for extraneous drives.  They can purchase more computers at a reduced cost and their managers no longer fill to share computer access in the office.

    Menu Design

    For their menu design need, they fill found InDesign to exist the most efficient program, which is Part of the Adobe Creative Cloud.  This program can now exist selected a la carte from Adobe’s menu of programs and paid for on a month to month basis for under $20.  This is much more palatable than paying $600 for the entire Adobe suite.

    These are just a handful examples of how cloud computing has impacted their operations and ultimately saved time for their management team and staff.  Ten seconds here, 5 minutes there, an hour tomorrow – it adds up to impactful chunks of time that can exist better spent elsewhere.  They fill only scratched the surface as an industry – they will descry more and more options for cloud-based solutions to true world restaurant problems. Although the solutions highlighted above create efficiency and deliver time, they enact not serve guests and they don’t understand the craft of hospitality.  It is imperative that as restaurateurs they continue to create a positive environment, embrace innovation, and engage and train their employees in the craft and skill of hospitality.

    There are some things you will never fill time for in the restaurant industry, regardless of cloud-based advancements.  “Lunch”, for example, I fill heard is a meal that takes space in the middle of the day.  For me, “lunch” is the sandwich that I devour in 30 seconds somewhere between 2pm and 6pm standing over a trash can in the back of the kitchen.  There is no technology for that…

    PDF Version Available Here

    References [i] “PCI Compliance usher FAQ.” PCIComplianceGuide.Org. September, 2018. https://www.pcicomplianceguide.org/faq/#1. [ii] Green, D. and Hanbury, M. (Aug. 22, 2018). “If you shopped at these 16 stores in the eventual year, your data might fill been stolen.” https://www.businessinsider.com/data-breaches-2018-4 [iii] “What Is Cloud Computing?” IBM.com. September, 2018. https://www.ibm.com/cloud/learn/what-is-cloud-computing. [iv] Kossman, Sienna. ” 8 FAQs about EMV credit cards.” CreditCards.com. August 29, 2017. https://www.creditcards.com/credit-card-news/emv-faq-chip-cards-answers-1264.php. Tyler was born and raised in Portland, Maine and has lived in the Boston zone since attending Boston University.  After graduating from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration, Mr. Titherington operated a handful of bars and restaurants in Boston.  He has been with Grafton Group since October 2007. 

    October 31st, 2018 in industry Practices, tumble 2018, Restaurants, Trends

    By Christopher Muller

    In Part 1 of this analysis of the restaurant delivery system they looked at the owner/operator models which soundless proffer some measure of control over cost and quality.  This is quick becoming an issue with the mount of the Ghost Kitchen where the ODP is an integral Part of the equation.  Here they present the larger challenges from the predominant ODP control of the marketplace.  It is honorable to recall that most of the ODPs themselves are soundless looking to find profits in what they do, a suggestion that those profits will exigency to foster at the expense of the restaurant providers in one route or another.

    5. The Aggregator or On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) – No Driver Fleet

    If someone were to say, “Let me buy charge of everything of your delivery problems for a small slash of your revenues” many restaurant operators, especially those interested to collect into the market with the least amount of upfront investment, would jump at the chance.  Enter the On-Line Delivery Provider with a industry model built upon a brand name customer-facing APP, website or phone number and an immense amount of back office computing power to drive order volume.

    At its core, to exist successful the Aggregator needs to exist a world-class matchmaker for food orders, with both a big customer database of users and a broad assortment of restaurant menus offered in major cities.  relish many of what MIT’s Bill Aulet calls an Innovation Driven Enterprise (IDE)[1] the cost of customer acquisition is the key hurdle in entering this distribution channel. What it doesn’t exigency is its own fleet of employee delivery drivers. Capitalizing on the DIY gig economy, drivers are hired on a contractual basis, working as independent delivery agents with their own vehicles.

    The barrier to lowering this tall cost of entry has favored early market entrants and big well-funded digital innovators.  Worldwide, the fastest growing ODP is Uber Eats, the natural extension of car service provider, Uber, with its existing immense data basis of users, an ever expanding fleet of drivers, and the understanding for a driver that delivering food with an APP-based pre-payment system is considerably faster and easier than dealing with human passengers.

    The upside for restaurant companies using an ODP such as Uber Eats, from those as predominant as McDonalds or as small as the local pizzeria, is that there is no exigency to hire and train non-core employees.  As touted by Uber Eats delivery service can initiate almost immediately upon signing up.  The downside, that has a potential for long term impact, is two-fold.  The fee structure for traditionally low margin restaurants can exist between 20-30% of a menu particular price, leaving minute to cover remaining expenses.  Worse though is that the restaurant gives away its brand and trade dress image to the company making the delivery to the front door.  McDonalds hamburgers may exist in the bag, but the name on the ordering APP and the uniform on the person handing it to the customer says Uber Eats.

    6. The Consolidator – Bulk “Bus Stop”

    As noted, the most expensive separate piece of the delivery confound is getting food from the restaurant to the front door, what is called “the eventual mile.”  One proven route to minimize that expense is to fill the customer meet the food delivery at a central drop-off spot (see: Amazon [2]).  A start-up, Yun Ban Bao, in original York City is taking odds of ethnic Chinese food deserts through direct targeted marketing using the predominant Chinese online service provider, WeChat.  By doing so it is creating a captive delivery market with the odds of pre-ordering and payment.[3]

    Taking online requests for delivery on the next industry day, then consolidating orders using a bulk delivery model, Yun Ban Bao is lowering the cost of delivery while maintaining control with its own fleet of drivers.  It advertises a data analytics service for smaller restaurants as well as being a revenue growth accelerator for restaurants in suburban locations which otherwise could not find original or broader market opportunities.

    Using a pre-arranged group delivery network, often outside parks, office towers or apartment buildings, the system mirrors a bus route, not the more traditional taxi route model of one-on-one delivery.  This furthermore affords the network of restaurants a route to lower operating costs by controlling the production process in advance.

    7. The Aggregator ODP – Owned Fleet

    Some of the largest ODP players started in the delivery industry by controlling their own fleets of employee managed delivery drivers.  The global leader, Just Eat,[4] has used this model throughout the UK, Europe and worldwide.  But it furthermore has worked directly with restaurants who fill their own in-house deliver fleets to create a broad partnership.  Just devour acts as the online ordering platform, but then allows the local branded company to exist the mug at the door.

    The skill to present a standardized customer facing brand identity means that confidence may exist established with the customer directly.  While this can foster at the risk of the restaurant losing its direct brand relationship, what Just devour has been able to master is the collection of a vast customer database of its users.  It has created a relationship with many of its restaurant partners to assist them in finding model store locations, menu particular design and creative targeted pricing and promotions programs which would not otherwise exist affordable or even available to smaller companies.

    For these ODP companies, the costs for maintaining their own fleets or working as a hybrid with a local restaurant creates a higher operating expense, but these are often offset with a higher fee share from both the restaurant and the consumer.  It furthermore creates a competitive odds by edifice a broader network of restaurants to elect from for the customer, which builds long term loyalty and habitual purchase behaviors.

    8. The ODP Aggregator – dismal Kitchens

    One of the greatest threats to the bricks and mortar restaurant delivery partners is the emerging concept of a dismal Kitchen.  This is a space created by an OPD to facilitate the lowest cost per delivery mile from restaurant kitchen to the highest density of users.  While this is similar to the Cloud Kitchen model, in this case the OPD establishes a cluster of small dedicated but competitive restaurant kitchens in a separate site.  A dismal Kitchen is furthermore similar to the trending food hall concept, but comes with no direct customer interaction—no walk-in guest visits these production facilities.  In the UK this was pioneered by Deliveroo with its urban RooBox or Editions concepts.[5] confederate restaurants rent portable kitchen space from the delivery service and pay a larger percentage fee to cover the build-out costs for their space.  Restaurants staff the kitchens at their own expense, as well.

    Earlier this year, Grubhub invested $1 million in Green pinnacle Group (see Ghost Kitchen in Part I), a startup with nine virtual restaurants operating from a separate kitchen. DoorDash is renting extra space from the Santa Clara Fairgrounds in San Jose, Calif., and making it available to foodservice operators who want to create delivery-only options. In Los Angeles, Postmates leased a commissary kitchen space so its restaurants can compass original customers. And UberEATS is exploring the concept with Poke Café in Chicago — a virtual restaurant serving Hawaiian poke bowls.

    “We can travail with existing restaurant partners to create delivery-only menus. (They would) issue as entirely original restaurants on the UberEats app,” Ambika Krishnamachar, UberEats product manager, said in an article on Mashable.[6]

    And again, while on its mug this appears to exist a positive break for independent or chain restaurants to lower costs or disaggregate the dine-in from the delivery production process, it is not cost free.  In fact, as a rational progression would suggest, the OPD Deliveroo service has realized that the actual local restaurant in this mingle is not a necessity for success.  Instead by using its own “innovation fund” it will to Go directly into the restaurant industry itself, creating “from scratch” concepts by working with personage chefs and data mining information from its immense customer data base. [7]

    As more of the OPDs ogle to find profits to pass along to the aggressive investors who fill funded rapid growth, they will inevitably ogle to slash out the middleman and provide meals themselves to augment margins. The kitchen that may actually Go “dark” is the local one on the corner down the street in an independent restaurant.

    Conclusions

    This is undoubtedly both an exciting and a challenging time for the restaurant industry and the Online Delivery Providers who are feeding from it.  Neither side seems to fill figured out how to gain the original consumer demand for off-site delivery travail to their complete advantage.

    It is impossible to believe that any restaurant can survive if it gives away up to 30% of its top line revenues when the middling net profit is less than 10%.  No amount of increased volume in sales will gain up for that.  As Cameron Keng wrote in his column “Why Uber Eats Will devour You Into Bankruptcy” in March, 2018:

    Based on the middling profit margins above, every restaurant that engages Uber Eats will lose money on every order they take. The more orders coming from Uber Eats, the more money a restaurant would lose.[8]

    At the same time, while it is arduous to collect exact information, it appears that almost zilch of the largest On-Line Delivery Providers, in any of the described segments is actually showing a profit.  Uber Eats is only profitable in 27 of its more than 100 urban markets,[9] and while Deliveroo’s sales rose in 2017 to £277 million ($356 million), the company lost an astounding £185 million ($237 million).[10]  Yet Uber Eats is offering over $2 billion to purchase/merge with Deliveroo.

    Finally, as Jonathan Maze wrote in his Bottom Line column in early October the restaurant industry is simply unprepared for what appears to exist a tectonic shift in traditional restaurant segments, consumer behavior, labor utilization, true Estate valuation and investor interest.

    If delivery is the future of the restaurant business, the restaurant industry as it is currently constructed is in trouble.

    The service is growing rapidly. But it’s increasingly replacing existing restaurant industry rather than taking industry away from grocers or other food retailers. [11]

    As they eminent in the beginning, it took the lodging industry almost 20 years to initiate to gain this kind of tectonic change and it is nowhere near complete.  A few very big hotel companies, through merger and acquisition, fill consolidated enough power to start the lag away from handing over everything of their pricing to the OTA’s.  In economic terms, hotel companies are trying to Go from being cost Takers to cost Setters.

    At this early stage of the restaurant OPD’s domination of the delivery cycle, it is not limpid that any restaurant organization is big enough to demolish the fever, especially now that McDonald’s is partnering with Uber Eats.  While it may issue that the On-line Delivery Provider is a restaurant’s partner, friend or even savior, it is zilch of those.  In fact, in order to become profitable the OPD is looking to become a direct competitor.

    What is inevitable is that few restaurant companies, and certainly no independent operations, can survive the next two decades letting third parties impose what convenience and cost mean.  In fact, this might exist a honorable time to collect out of the house and Go visit your favorite local restaurant.  Sacrificing some convenience for a considerable undergo is a honorable value and that restaurant may not exist around the next time you want to point to up.

    PDF Version Available Here

    References [1] descry Bill Aulet, Disciplined Entrepreneurship, [2] The Financial, October 25, 2018,  https://www.finchannel.com/~finchannel/business/76317-amazon-expands-grocery-delivery-and-pickup [3] Menqi Sun, WSJ, September 9, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/how-to-get-food-delivered-from-your-favorite-faraway-restaurant-1536516000 [4] See https://www.just-eat.com/ [5] James Cook, industry Insider, April 5, 2017, https://www.businessinsider.com/deliveroo-editions-pop-up-restaurants-roobox-2017-4 [6] Tim York, The Packer, March 23, 2018, https://www.thepacker.com/article/rise-virtual-restaurant [7]Sophie Witts, huge Hospitality, May 21, 2018, https://www.bighospitality.co.uk/Article/2018/05/21/Deliveroo-to-create-own-restaurant-brands-using-5m-fund# [8] Cameron Keng, Forbes, March 26, 2018, https://www.forbes.com/sites/cameronkeng/2018/03/26/why-uber-eats-will-eat-you-into-bankruptcy/#778a3b0621f6 [9] Ibid., DealBook, September 21, 2018 [10] BBC News, October 1, 2018, https://www.bbc.com/news/business-45707700 [11] Jonathan Maze, Restaurant industry Online, October 17, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/delivery-could-force-changes-restaurant-business-model Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the drill of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: cmuller@bu.edu

    October 31st, 2018 in industry Practices, tumble 2018, Restaurants, Trends

    By Christopher Muller

    The entire restaurant industry, from the simplest quick service joint to the most complicated fine dining jewel, is caught in a veritable frenzy of delivery.  It may be, unfortunately, a very risky path to travel for the uninitiated restaurant operation, but delivery is driving the investment community to a fever pitch. [1] They fill entered into the time of the restaurant On-Line Delivery Provider (ODP) which mirrors in many ways the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) which has so disrupted the lodging industry.

    In two complimentary BHR articles here, they present a ogle at the 8 different models of restaurant delivery and how they are affecting both senior management and customer choices.

    A Quick Lesson From Pricing History

    For observers of the global Hospitality Industry this should forward up warning flags.  In a galaxy far, far away, the Lodging industry managed revenues by using simple seasonal or attribute pricing models (On-, Shoulder- and Off-Peak rates, or premiums for “A leeway With A View”) and sold some limited excess inventory through a network of independent Travel Agents (at an onerous 10% commission!).

    Then, as the Internet expanded, and the travel market imploded after the 9-11 tragedy, a original and exciting model emerged – the On-Line Travel Agent (OTA) acting as a third party aggregator appeared.  Hotel companies willingly gave open access to everything of their unsold leeway inventory to the OTAs (Expedia, Travelocity, Priceline, Booking.com, Kayak, Trivago, etc.) to sell directly at abysmal discounts, often between 25 and 30% off posted Rack Rates.  Occupancies rose, but middling Daily Rates plummeted, and profits quickly diminished.  Hotels, relying on the ancient pricing models were caught competing “with themselves” and watched as formerly loyal customers switched their buying habits and loyalties to the OTA that gave them the best rate.  Customers could scroll through pages of prices, often for the exact same leeway in the same hotel, searching for the cheapest rate.  Hotel rooms, instead of being unique destinations became interchangeable commodities.

    It has taken almost twenty years, but through brand consolidation and a total system-wide transformation into a Revenue Management based pricing model, the hotel industry has been transformed and the OTAs are being aggressively challenged for dominance. This should exist a lesson for the restaurant owner/operator, the OTAs drove nothing but cost as a conclusion attribute, the ODPs are poised to enact the same thing with both cost and convenience, unfortunately restaurants probably won’t fill decades to recover.

    Today’s Restaurant Delivery Frenzy –The mount of the ODP

    Whether it’s the savvy but shape-shifting Millennial, the rapidly aging Baby Boomer, or the rising young digital endemic from the i-Generation, it seems that customers in everything shapes and sizes just want to fill their meals brought to them at home, the office, or somewhere in between.  Breaking the code of the delivery model—becoming the customer’s election of who serves up breakfast, lunch or dinner at home, travail or play—has emerged as the Holy Grail of the foodservice business. But it may exist more relish the other mythic dismal Ages metaphor, the Plague, potentially killing upwards of 30% of existing restaurant units.

    So, what exactly is “delivery” today, how did it evolve into such a big, expanding component of the restaurant offering and what are the implications going forward for the industry?  Just how enact the On-Line Delivery Providers, the ODP, dominate the market?

    We can initiate by agreeing that delivery is a several and rapidly growing distribution channel, although it has been around in one shape or another for a very long time.  And while not exactly a original technology, nor necessarily a profitable one, the exploding market for the delivery of food is poised for an inevitable tremble out as it quickly approaches a mature side consolidation.[2]

    In late 2018 delivery is everything about instant gratification, not just for the diner but some would intimate for the restaurant as well. At first glance, it everything feels so simple and easy. But relish so much in restaurant management, there is more than one route to collect something done, even the simplest of things.

    Emerging Key Success Factors

    Like so many emerging industry models in the on-line digital age, food delivery is developing its own metrics and factors to exist considered and mastered. While soundless evolving, among these now are:

  • Addressing the profit challenges of “The eventual Mile” in the delivery chain
  • Minimizing the tall cost of Customer Acquisition
  • Developing an integrated APP, website, tablet and smartphone ordering platform
  • Designing the most effectual delivery driver fleet system
  • Establishing an attractive and competitive user fee basis
  • Creating positive and immediate Brand recognition
  • Building a proprietary knowledge basis of data storage, analytics and access
  • Delivery of food, especially from a restaurant to a consumer, has become a multi-billion dollar segment of the industry.  Some are predicting that it will overtake the traditional dine-in segment completely within a decade, although the complexity of getting it perquisite and turning a profit while doing so, can soundless exist elusive even for the largest players.  And of course, no one should forget that Amazon is over in the corner waiting to descry how things evolve in an online delivery world they basically invented.

    Traditional and Controlled

    As noted, the delivery of food from a restaurant directly to a local customer is not a original notion although traditionally the customer came to the restaurant and picked up or carried out their food order.  Both delivery and carry-out were best suited to a restaurant with a simple, easily transported menu.  Where a significant amount of the value of the meal was the dining undergo and table service, meals to Go were often comprised of a package of leftovers or the long gone term “doggie bags.”

    Here is a ogle at four models with some measure of control for restaurant owners and operators over the character and profitability of their offerings.

    1. The Independent – One Shot

    As a service provider a restaurant may rule that in order to meet the needs of its local customer basis it should provide a delivery option.  At one time, only a few restaurants in an urban core would fill delivery offers and these might typically exist delicatessens or Chinese restaurants with few seats and a very tenacious focus on offering takeout options. The food can exist cooked, boxed, wrapped and brought quickly to an office or apartment within a few blocks on foot or by bicycle.

    This model is the most basic – a caller, the kitchen, and an employee bringing red food directly to the customer.  The restaurant controls the quality, manages the relationship with the diner and absorbs the full cost and everything the revenues.  It typically comes with higher operating costs for labor (primarily from an in-house paid delivery driver fleet) and with premium rent from the exigency for an attractive customer-facing retail space.  On the plus side, everything local customer information may exist controlled by the restaurant and there are no fees to share with an outside third-party service.

    But as the independent operator reaches for the brass ring on the delivery merry-go-round, they furthermore exigency to exist heedful not to lose their grip on their existing ride.  A original distribution channel can exist much more challenging that just taking a customer order.  As eminent by Jennifer Marston:

    …restaurants are under pressure to adapt…More and more, that means altering the physical restaurant space so it can better accommodate this influx of original orders. Extra meals require extra bodies to cook and package the food, after all, not to mention extra space for third-party devices, and somewhere to build completed orders waiting to exist picked up by a delivery driver.[3]

    An exciting twist on this separate restaurant model of trying to find a route to both control and expand the delivery system while maintaining some measure of profitability is one recently proposed in the restaurant trade magazine Restaurant industry Online:

    He (CMO Nabeel Alamgir) explained that Bareburger is already striving to convert customers ordering through third parties’ apps into users of the chain’s own channels. Patrons of an Uber Eats or Postmates might exist offered a 10% discount on their next order if it’s placed through Bareburger’s website. The chain can afford a discount that abysmal because the financial impact is soundless less than the 20% or 30% discount an outside service typically charges.

    Alamgir eminent at the start of the panel’s presentation that a service started by restaurants for restaurants would fill been an attractive alternative to some of the third-party giants. “Let’s gain their own platform. Let’s gain their own Grubhub,” he said.[4]

    2. The Cloud Kitchen – A Hub & Spoke System

    It can exist argued that today’s focused delivery channel began in earnest when Domino’s offered up a “30 Minute or Free” guarantee in 1973.  In order to gain this guarantee effective, the company created a hub and spoke system, in sequel edifice a chain of franchised units in low cost locations. They were characterized by being geographically market-centered but with no exigency for a “High Street” customer facing address.  This was directly in contrast to the overwhelming market odds owned by Pizza Hut and its network of “Red Roof” full service pizzerias with their focus on dine-in and takeout service.  But the competitive odds that came from having units with no dine-in, limited customer carry-out, and which were serviced by a central commissary set in motion the shift away from the traditional eat-in model.

    “The reality is, when the red roof restaurant was created, the notion of delivery wasn’t Part of the concept,” said Pizza Hut chief executive David Gibbs, a 26-year veteran at parent company Yum Brands…”so in many cases, their industry has outgrown the capabilities of those restaurants…”[5]

    Now, four decades later Domino’s is the world leader in delivery, pizza or otherwise.  It has done this by controlling the entire process or what is called the “full stack” in the delivery cycle.  Now describing itself as an IT and logistics company that sells pizza, the backbone of the system is that they control the customer ordering process, the production character process, and through a vast franchise network the delivery process.

    Next to come, using original GPS and AI technologies, Domino’s predicts that it will exist able to gain deliveries not just to a formal edifice address, but to anywhere a customer can exist located by tracking their cellphone, even if that is a park bench or a blanket on the beach.

    But Domino’s is not the only leader to exist expanding its Cloud Kitchen delivery system. Already designed on a commissary production system model, giant quick casual leader, Panera Bread, tested delivery in Boston and then announced an expansion across the United States in early May, 2018 with a system based upon using its own delivery drivers. [6]  Following the trend in October the largest chicken sandwich chain, Chick-fil-A, announced it was dawn to test the hub and spoke model of delivery in Nashville, TN and Louisville, KY.

    Chick-fil-A is opening two original restaurants that don’t fill something you commonly associate with the chain: seats. 

    Chick-fil-A, the Atlanta-based chicken sandwich chain, is testing catering and delivery locations in Nashville and Louisville, Ky., that will open this month.

    The locations, according to an announcement on the chain’s website, fill no dining rooms or drive thru’s and are designed to exist hubs for catering and delivery orders. The restaurants will not accept cash, either.[7]

    The Cloud Kitchen model can exist very effectual for restaurant companies with big enough scale, whether in a separate city or across a region, to buy odds of a separate production kitchen site with remote staging kitchens.  Ultimately the “full stack” control from order to front door can foster from as few as three restaurants or as many as 3000. This furthermore means that the foundation is laid for vast proprietary customer data collection and eventually data mining by the most forward-looking operators.

    It can exist argued that the Food Truck movement of the past decade is a subset of the Cloud Kitchen model.  By most local health code laws, food trucks must fill a “home kitchen” or commissary for their bulk production that meets everything health and sanitation code requirements.  In many urban centers, to be successful a food truck company needs to fill multiple trucks on the road acting as a distribution network.  While this is furthermore a classic Hub & Spoke model, it comes with similarities to a model in the next article, #6 The Consolidator, with distribution on a bus cease route and not a one-to-one eventual mile taxi route.

    3. The Ghost Kitchen

    One further refinement of the Cloud Kitchen is the Ghost Kitchen.  As delivery becomes more of a threat to the traditional dine-in restaurant option, some intimate that this model, in fact, is the future of restaurants—basically a highly efficient hybrid of menu concepts, specialized production and logistics, and low labor cost with no eat-in customers.

    In that way, this model is identified by three key components.

    First, it removes the dining leeway or takeout from the restaurant completely, working out of a kitchen whose location is based on nearness to its core customer market yet in a typically low rent out-of-the-way space.

    Second, it does not hire any paid employees to deliver, instead making employ (through partnership or agreement) of the many third-party delivery companies relish GrubHub, Postmates or Doordash.

    Third, and possibly the most important, because of the flexibility of only needing an APP, website or traditional telephone ordering system, more than one cuisine can exist produced in the same kitchen space.  easy to prepare, cook and deliver foods such as salads, sandwiches, Asian and other ethnic dishes, or gourmet pizza can everything exist offered while cross-utilizing similar ingredients in creative menu offerings.[8]

    This can best exist described as an “order only” restaurant.  The most prominent or well-known of these Ghost Kitchens would exist Green pinnacle (see transition to #8 dismal Kitchen in Part 2).  While garnering a honorable amount of press, the personage chef David Chang’s Maple, closed its operation in 2017 with some assets poignant to London and the delivery company Deliveroo.[9] Chef Chang sold the physical kitchen space, Ando, to Uber Eats after ceasing operations in January, 2018. [10]

    Because no customer ever sets foot through the front door the owners can build everything of their investment in kitchen apparatus and the technology of ordering.  A Ghost Kitchen offers customers big menu choices, and just as its cousin the Cloud Kitchen, has the option to hold track of its own proprietary customer data set through the direct ordering process.  The tradeoff is that ownership sacrifices the customer interface at delivery of the Cloud Kitchen model.  Operating and start-up costs are low and efficiency can exist very high.  The risk is that a big portion of the margin (sometimes up to 30%) from market-driven menu prices is taken by the delivery partnership, who furthermore control the brand image when customers receive their orders off-site.[11]

    4. Virtual Restaurants

    Along with disrupting the taxi business, Uber Eats is about to globally disrupt the restaurant delivery business.  As of October, 2018, Uber Eats had over 1600 “virtual restaurants” around the globe, with almost 1000 in its US partnership portfolio.  The majority of these are not the Cloud or dismal Kitchen models mentioned above, but are existing restaurants with original brands that only exist through Uber Eats. This model, while charging very tall fees to the restaurant, allows them to technically not compete with themselves in the home delivery marketplace.  Uber Eats gains more menus to offer, and limits any exigency for an investment in a commissary space.

    For SushiYaa, Kim says the virtual restaurant concept has been transformative. “Because this concept worked so well for us, they actually changed one of their restaurants from a sushi buffet concept to a regular restaurant with 8 different virtual restaurant brands inside it. The buffet sales weren’t doing so well and the delivery side was doing better, so they thought — let’s change it completely so we’re focused more on delivery.” From a sales standpoint, he says it’s “almost as if they fill another restaurant without paying additional rent and labor, even though [Uber Eats] takes about 30 percent.”[12]

    One other type of Virtual Kitchen involves the licensing of existing restaurant recipes and menu items in a curated virtual model.  The start-up concept honorable Uncle is using this to compete in the university meal device segment, offering a ambit of pricing options for higher character prepared meals, delivered by their own delivery fleet using the bus cease common drop off method.  This is a limited menu, limited target market, which benefits from a direct marketing approach, lower operating costs, and uses both a subscription and premium fee based pricing system.[13] It is a Virtual Kitchen because there is no restaurant or other customer facing facility, it exists only online.

    Part One – Conclusions

    Delivery models, some traditional, some evolving, proffer many opportunities for restaurant operators, especially those in the QSR and quick Casual segments, where accelerate and cost and convenience are the drivers of consumer choice.

    The challenge in today’s delivery market is how owners and operators can maintain both tall character and long-term profitability in the products/services they offer.  For many meals, the time and distance from kitchen to table can exist more than 30 minutes or multiple miles. character of presentation and flavor may quickly diminish.  More importantly, where the medium annual profitability for restaurants across everything segments in the USA is considerably less than 10%, losing up to 30% of top line revenues is not a path to a successful future, (even if total sales augment by 20%).

    PDF Version Available Here

    References [1] Heather Haddon and Julie Jargon, The Wall Street Journal online, October 24, 2018, https://www.wsj.com/articles/investors-are-craving-food-delivery-companies-1540375578?mod=cx_picks&cx_navSource=cx_picks&cx_tag=contextual&cx_artPos=4#cxrecs_s [2] Liam Proud, DealBook, NYTimes, September 21, 2018, https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/21/business/dealbook/uber-eats-deliveroo.html [3] Jennifer Marston, The Spoon, July 31, 2018, https://thespoon.tech/delivery-is-making-these-restaurants-literally-redesign-the-way-they-do-business/ [4] Peter Romeo, Restaurant industry Online,  Oct. 19, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/operations/3-big-changes-looming-restaurants [5] Karen Robinson-Jabos, Dallas News, Jan 6, 2016. https://www.dallasnews.com/business/business/2016/01/06/pizza-hut-is-ditching-the-iconic-red-roof-for-a-more-modern-look [6] Janelle Nanos, Boston Globe, May 7, 2018, https://www.bostonglobe.com/business/2018/05/07/panera-expanding-its-delivery-service-cities/sZg4pO0yTw9cEdYpv514tL/story.html?event=event12 [7] Jonathan Maze, Restaurant industry Online, Oct. 09, 2018 https://www.restaurantbusinessonline.com/financing/chick-fil-opening-new-delivery-focused-prototype [8] Neal Ungerleider, 01.20.17 quick Company  https://www.fastcompany.com/3064075/hold-the-storefront-how-delivery-only-ghost-restaurants-are-changing-take-out [9] Closing announcement from Maple, May 8, 2017 https://maple.com/letter/ [10] Whitney Filloon, Eater, October 24, 2018, www.eater.com/2018/10/24/18018334/uber-eats-virtual-restaurants [11] descry the online Audiopedia site https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BKO5JFbqKTA [12] Ibid, Eater, October 24, 2018 [13] descry https://www.gooduncle.com/  Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the drill of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email: cmuller@bu.edu

    October 31st, 2018 in industry Practices, tumble 2018, Hotels, Marketing, Sharing Economy, Technology, Trends

    By Makarand Mody and Monica Gomez

    For a long time, the hotel industry did not account Airbnb a threat. Both the industry and Airbnb claimed they were serving different markets and had different underlying industry models. Over the years, as Airbnb become more successful and grown to being larger than the companies in the hotel industry, the rhetoric has changed. The hotel industry began to realize they had something to worry about.

    A stage of denial was followed by the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) attacking Airbnb by sponsoring research to demonstrate its negative impacts on the economy and lobbying governments to impose taxes and regulations on homesharing. The association is arguing for a even playing domain between homesharing and hotels (and rightly so). The next stage of this battle involves competition and integration. Not only are hotels looking to add homesharing-like attributes and experiences to their properties, to more effectively compete with Airbnb, but are furthermore looking to tap into the platform-based industry model that underlies Airbnb’s success.

    The Past: How does Airbnb impact the hotel industry?

    Airbnb’s disruption of the hotel industry is significant, both existentially and economically. A recent study by Dogru, Mody, and Suess (2018) found that a 1% growth in Airbnb supply across 10 key hotel markets in the U.S. between 2008 and 2017 caused hotel RevPAR to decease 0.02% across everything segments. While these numbers may not issue substantial at first, given that Airbnb supply grew by over 100% year-on-year over this ten year term means that the “real” abate in RevPAR was 2%, across hotel segments. Surprisingly, it was not just the economy but furthermore the extravagance hotel segment that was arduous hit by Airbnb supply increases, experiencing a 4% true decline in RevPAR. The impact of Airbnb on ADR and occupancy was less severe. In Boston, RevPAR has decreased 2.5%, on average, over the eventual ten years due to Airbnb supply increases. In 2016 alone, this 2.5% abate in RevPAR amounted to $5.8 million in revenue lost by hotels to Airbnb. Brands that felt the impact the most were those in the midscale and extravagance segments, with a abate in RevPAR of 4.3% and 2.3% respectively. These supply increases are furthermore fueling Airbnb taking an increasing share of the accommodation market pie. For example, in original York City, Airbnb comprised 9.7% of accommodation demand, equaling approximately 8,000 rooms per night in Q1 2016 (Lane & Woodworth, 2016). As a whole, Airbnb’s accommodated demand made up nearly 3% of everything traditional hotel demand in Q12016.

    Buoyed by a growth rate of over 100% year on year, Airbnb now has over 4 million listings, with the U.S. being its largest market. The company furthermore has significant leeway to grow in other countries, particularly emerging markets in Africa and India. The company has elope into some competition in China, with local rivals Tujia and Xiaozhu. Also, within the U.S., the honorable word is that Airbnb will not grow at 100% indefinitely and will eventually plateau as it reaches a saturation point (Ting, 2017a). In view of this, the company has turned to alternative strategies to continue to augment supply. It is now targeting property developers to whirl entire buildings into potential Airbnb units, through its newest hotel-like brand, Niido. Currently, there are two Airbnb branded Niido buildings in Nashville, TN and Orlando, FL with over 300 units each and Airbnb plans to fill as many as 14 home-sharing properties by 2020 (Zaleski, 2018). Niido works by encouraging tenants to list their units on Airbnb, with Airbnb and Niido taking 25% of the revenue generated.  Airbnb has furthermore clearly evolved from its original premise of “targeting a different market” to attracting segments traditionally targeted by hotels, such as the leisure family market, industry travelers, and the upscale traveler, as evidenced through its latest offering, Airbnb Plus. These homes fill been verified for quality, comfort, design, maintenance, and the amenities they offer. They furthermore fill easy check in, premium internet access, and fully equipped kitchens. Their hosts are typically rated 4.8+, and Go above and beyond for their guests. Through Airbnb Experiences, travelers can partake in everything from the considerable outdoors—hiking and surfing—to “hidden” concerts and food and wine tours.  In addition to these products, Airbnb has furthermore “created” its own segments of travelers: novelty and undergo seekers who are looking for unique and unconventional accommodation relish yurts, treehouses, and boats, everything things that a traditional hotel company cannot provide.

    The Present: Understanding what consumers want lies at the heart of the battle between hotels and Airbnb

    There are larger societal trends that are impacting what consumers hunt travel, and they mediate this has implications for the Airbnb and hotel dynamic. These trends include:

  • A shift to a “new luxury”—seeking out unique, true experiences that serve as a launchpad for self-actualization—fueled by an increased wealth gap in the United States.
  • An increased mobility, particularly among previously under-represented groups in the United States (the black travel movement, for example) and the global traveler (more Indian and Chinese international travelers than ever before).
  • The changing nature of brand loyalty: from long-term relationships to consumers’ needs for instant gratification and personalization.
  • Changing nature of “ownership”: In a post-consumerist society, the stress on “access-based consumption” has build a spotlight on wellness and well-being, beyond materialism.
  • A co-everything world where work, play, and life blend into one seamless mosaic: Technology has changed the route they live their lives, and how they are connected to work, to each other and to the things that drive us. An upcoming 5G world and the IOT is only likely to accelerate the pace of change. buy LiveZoku (https://livezoku.com/), for example: is it a residence? A hotel? A WeWork? A space for the local community? A thriving food and beverage destination? It’s everything of these things.
  • What enact these trends mean? They require marketers and undergo designers to re-think what the travel undergo means to the customer. The notion of the undergo economy was created by Pine and Gilmore in 1998, and included four dimensions: escapism, education, entertainment, and esthetic. Leveraging one, or ideally, more of these dimensions creates memorable experiences for customers, which in whirl results in brand loyalty. This dynamic has been fairly well-established in the academic literature. However, Airbnb has changed the game for the undergo economy by emphasizing the sharing lifestyle and a sense of community, cleverly incorporating the above highlighted trends into its communications with customers. Because of Airbnb popularity and success, six original dimensions fill been incorporated into the undergo economy, in the context of the travel experience: personalization, communitas, localness, hospitableness, serendipity, and ethical consumerism, as was presented by Mody in 2016.

    Interestingly, in a recent study by Mody and colleagues (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, 2017), the researchers found that Airbnb outperformed hotels on everything the dimensions of this new, expanded, accommodation experiencescape. Airbnb outperforms hotels in the personalization dimension because of its wide array of homes and locations, enabling genuine micro-segmentation and the “perfect match” between guest and host (Dolnicar, 2018). Moreover, no one home is similar to another, giving customers a unique undergo every time, enhancing the serendipity associated with an Airbnb stay. Airbnb elevates the sense of community that consumers seek, particularly when sharing space with other travelers and/or with the host, and allows consumers unparalleled access to “the local”—that café or cute minute store that only locals know about. However, there are areas where hotels hold their own. For example, the pathways between these dimensions and memorability were just as tenacious for hotels as for Airbnb, emphasizing the exigency for hotels to engage customers by leveraging the “right” dimensions for the brand—dimensions that align with the brand’s mission, story, and personality.

    One such dimension where hotels accomplish just as well as Airbnb is hospitableness, as confirmed in a study by Mody, Suess, and Lehto (2018). More “investor units” on the Airbnb platform means that the host is often not present when guests arrive to the home; moreover, everything communication is done electronically and with someone who “manages” the Airbnb unit and doesn’t necessarily own or live in it. In turn, hotels that leverage the human factor—the welcome of a friendly check-in agent, the helpfulness of the concierge,  the warm greeting and genuine interaction between guest and food and beverage staff—create more positive emotions, which subsequently lead to higher brand loyalty. It is imperative that hotel brands really mediate about the high-tech, tall touch undergo they are looking to provide, particularly in the golden age of brand proliferation that they live in.

    From a non-experience standpoint, regulation is another bone of contention that merits nearby inspection. After years of denying that Airbnb was a competitor, in 2016, the American Hotel & Lodging Association first began an extensive lobbying ail for the imposition of taxes and regulations on Airbnb that even the playing field. Over the eventual couple of years, the voices of the hotel lobby and other community groups fill translated into governments taking some action, in the U.S. and abroad. However, in a study of regulation across 12 European and American cities, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) found that governments fill been fairly lenient towards short-term rentals with minute to no (meaningful) regulations thus far. Moreover, regulations fill been designed to alleviate the negative externalities of Airbnb on neighborhoods and communities rather than to even the playing domain between Airbnb and hotels. Another challenge with regulating the peer to peer economy has been enforcement. In original York City, under the Multiple Dwelling law, it is illegal for a unit to exist rented out for less than 30 days unless the owner is present in the unit at the time the guest is renting. However, it is soundless viable to find “entire homes” on Airbnb in original York City, even though, in principle, these typically include homes where the host is not present during the guest’s stay. Moreover, Nieuwland and van Melik (2018) and Hajibaba and Dolnicar (2017) fill found that regulations watch to exist very similar across cities, without accounting for the specificities of a particular location, which makes the process perfunctory and superficial. There furthermore remains the danger of over-regulating Airbnb, given that there is soundless very minute knowledge about effectual ways of regulating these innovations in the sharing economy, thus stifling their potential. Avoid over-regulation is critical, since Airbnb has significant welfare effects in the economy. In addition to stimulating travel to previously inaccessible markets, Airbnb furthermore creates customer surplus (Farronato & Fradkin, 2018), an primary economic value measure. Moreover, other research has suggested that the middling resident is not as negative towards the Airbnb as media rhetoric might intimate (Mody, Suess, & Dogru, 2018). The exigency for a data-driven approach to Airbnb regulation remains paramount.

    The Future: Competing with the sharing economy requires re-thinking the brand and the experience

    While regulation is outside the control of the hotel industry, the brand and the customer undergo are not. They contend that these are the areas where hotel companies’ efforts exigency to exist focused. Hotels exigency to re-think the brand promise, both for the parent brand as well as individual brands in the portfolio, and how it defines and shapes the guest experience. Recent research by Mody and Hanks (2018) indicates that while Airbnb leverages the authenticity of the travel experience—by enabling local experiences that provide a sense of self and sense of place, hotel brands that are perceived as being authentic—original, genuine, and sincere—can generate higher brand loyalty. Thus, while it’s arduous to compete with homesharing in terms of experiential authenticity, brand authenticity is a pillar on which hotels can build a tenacious foundation for loyal brand relationships. This is particularly primary because while Airbnb promotes experiential authenticity as a key understanding to employ the brand, most travelers watch to tarry with the brand for much more functional requirements, such as space and cost (Chen & Xie, 2017; Dogru & Pekin, 2017)

    There is no one definition for or manifestation of an “authentic” brand. It’s a perception, a emotion that consumers fill about what you stand for. An true brand has at its core the brand promise, an true value proposition that gives consumers a raison d’etre for associating with the brand. However, what an true brand does require is effectual storytelling. A brand is perceived to exist authentic, if it has an true sage that feeds it. Brand stories can foster from many sources: a brand’s values, personality, heritage, uniqueness, or its quest and purpose. What is primary is telling compelling and coherent stories across the brand’s various touchpoints to engage consumers at a visceral, emotional level. Taking off industry blinders, and looking for inspiration outside the hotel industry, is critical. Tom’s Shoes is an excellent illustration of leveraging its quest—One for One—in creating a compelling brand story. As another example, in an industry typically focused on the in-store, “physical” experience, Burberry has set the gold benchmark for authentic, digitally-led and emotive storytelling, by looking within and leveraging over 150 years of history (Watch the YouTube Video here). In this vein, they mediate that Fairfield Inn and Suites’ return to “where it everything began”—the Marriott family’s Fairfield Farm in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Virginia— to craft the brand undergo of the future, from a design and communications standpoint, is an excellent illustration of leveraging authenticity and crafting a compelling brand vow (Ting, 2017b).

    Another notion that lies at the heat of the brand vow is what they summon the experiential value proposition, or EVP. For the longest time, hotel marketers fill relied on the guest leeway as the primary source of value for the guest. But mediate about the eventual time you traveled. Was it the prospect of the hotel leeway that got you excited about your trip? Or was it everything that the hotel enables you to enact – the undergo outside the guestroom? From experiencing craft and music in the lobby to its proximity to the must-do craft beer garden, hotel marketers must realize that it’s the complete package—what’s inside and outside the room—that customers employ as cues for making  their conclusion to elect an accommodation. They summon this proposition offered by the hotel—what’s inside and outside the guest room, enclosed within an undergo of hospitableness and a connection to humanity—its EVP. They present the EVP in device 1.  The EVP mirrors the value paradigm of the modern traveler, something that must exist reflected in the hotel brand’s sales, marketing and pricing and revenue management efforts. Thinking about a brand through the lens of the EVP paradigm has the power to re-orient the customer’s mindset from one of price-shopping to experience-shopping.

     Figure 1. The Experiential Value Proposition Framework

    How does a hotel marketer apply the EVP paradigm? Its application can open up many avenues. Hotels can start by rethinking the design of their primary digital channels, led by the website by adding more rich, vivid content that goes beyond the guestroom, in order to better integrate aspects of the wider hotel and local experience. The benchmark Hotels serves as an excellent illustration (http://www.standardhotels.com/) Its website feels more relish a local lifestyle and culture magazine than a digital media property “selling” a hotel room. The website’s wealthy images and stories draw the visitor into wanting to learn more about what the brand has to offer. While not every hotel can or would want to Go the benchmark way, since the brand has its own several voice and personality, there is a case to exist made for going beyond static images of beds in guestrooms, which watch to blend into one indistinguishable entire after a point, particularly on OTA websites. When was the eventual time the image of a hotel bed excited you to want to tarry there? Yet, when you ogle at the imagery build out by most hotels, this is what marketers soundless focus on.

    Placing an stress on humanity and providing a sense of hospitableness can furthermore enhance a brand’s EVP. Instead of technology replacing the human connection, the industry needs to ogle for ways in which technology can actually free up employees so that they can expend their time crafting more personal and unique experiences, delighting guests instead of performing routine transactions. Moreover, if the human connection is what people hunt out when traveling with Airbnb, why is it that hotel confirmation emails soundless collect sent out by automated systems that highlight the “facelessness” of the hotel entity. Why not employ that as an break to truly welcome the guest; a simple touch such as a welcome missive from the GM with his/her photo, or that of an employee who is “assigned” as “your personal host” during your tarry can Go a long route in emulating the human connection that the sharing economy enables.

    The design of the hotel’s public spaces can exist used to enhance the guest’s undergo of “communitas”. Ian Schrager would conform (Schaal, 2017). After all, with much of Airbnb’s supply being dominated by investor units that provide minute or no host contact, what better an break for hotel brands to point to that they are the original connectors of human beings? Sheraton has been sage in incorporating some of these communal elements into its brand makeover by introducing productivity tables and studio spaces and a day-time coffee bar that transforms into a bar at night. In terms of another design element, Airbnb’s attractiveness to family and group travelers can exist offset by offering connecting and/or multiple rooms for one price, with other undergo value-adds thrown in (as with the Marriott family leeway connecting rooms package.

    Finally, the role of the loyalty program cannot exist emphasized enough. Loyalty programs must lag beyond programmatic levels to being able to leverage data from guest history, social media, and other marketing data sources, powered by predictive analytics, to personalize and individualize the guest undergo of the brand. In an age of instant gratification, the loyalty program has to exist gamified to unlock value-adds and proffer creative bundling.

    At the even of the hotel company, beyond the individual brand, the hotel industry has started participating in the home sharing industry and is increasingly looking to integrate these platform industry models. For example, while Accor purchased Onefinestay, Marriott has teamed up with Hostmaker to create Tribute Portfolio Homes, a partnership that was recently expanded to four European cities (Fox, 2018). From an organic brand evolution standpoint, Accor’s newest Jo & Joe brand mimics the sharing economy within the confines of a traditional hotel space. Other, more innovative and bold ways of integrating the sharing economy ethos into a hotel could include offering an “Airbnb floor”, an antithesis to the club floor, one that would not proffer housekeeping and other hotel services and thus exist offered at a lower price. With hotel brands becoming “branded marketplaces” for accommodation and not just hotel rooms, perhaps there is merit in listing hotel rooms on alternative accommodation platforms. HomeAway is already adding hotels to its platform through the Expedia Affiliate Network, while Airbnb is making a thrust for bed-and-breakfasts and boutique hotels. Homesharing providers hope that by adding these options to their listings, they will fulfill their goal of being “for everyone”, while allowing independent and boutique hotels to garner the benefits of branded distribution at a lower cost than traditional OTA brands.

    In sum, hotels must adopt a sales, marketing, and revenue management approach that is both strategic and tactical.

    At a strategic level, hotel brands exigency to re-think their story, and how they portray and fulfill their authenticity and brand promises. At a tactical level, it’s the undergo and value beyond the guestroom that must exist factored into what is presented to current and potential guests, what they are charged for it, and how it is leverage to create “memorable memories” that lead to higher net promotor scores and brand loyalty. They present a graphical summary of the past, present, and future of Airbnb vs. hotels in device 2.

    Figure 2. Summarizing the past, present and future of Airbnb vs. hotels

    PDF Version Available Here

    References Chen, Y., & Xie, K. (2017). Consumer valuation of Airbnb listings: a hedonic pricing approach. International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2405–2424. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-10-2016-0606 Dogru, T., Mody, M., & Suess, C. (2018). Adding evidence to the debate: Quantifying Airbnb’s disruptive impact on ten key hotel markets. Dogru, T., & Pekin, O. (2017). What enact guests value most in Airbnb accommodations? An application of the hedonic pricing approach. Boston Hospitality Review. Dolnicar, S. (2018). Unique Features of Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 1–14). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Farronato, C., & Fradkin, A. (2018). The Welfare Effects of Peer Entry in the Accommodation Market: The Case of Airbnb. Fox, J. (2018). Marriott expands homesharing program in Europe. Hotel Management. Retrieved from https://www.hotelmanagement.net/own/marriott-expands-homesharing-program-to-3-european-cities Hajibaba, H., & Dolnicar, S. (2017). Regulatory Reactions Around the World. In S. Dolnicar (Ed.), Peer-to-Peer Accommodation Networks: Pushing the boundaries (pp. 120–136). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. Lane, J., & Woodworth, M. (2016). The Sharing Economy Checks In: An Analysis of Airbnb in the United States. Retrieved from http://www.cbrehotels.com/EN/Research/Pages/An-Analysis-of-Airbnb-in-the-United-States.aspx Mody, M. A., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2017). The accommodation experiencescape: a comparative assessment of hotels and Airbnb. International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, 29(9), 2377–2404. http://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-09-2016-0501 Mody, M., & Hanks, L. (2018). Parallel pathways to brand loyalty: Mapping the consequences of true consumption experiences for hotels and Airbnb. Mody, M., Suess, C., & Dogru, T. (2018). Not in my backyard? Is the anti-Airbnb discourse truly warranted? Annals of Tourism Research. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2018.05.004 Mody, M., Suess, C., & Lehto, X. (2018). Going back to its roots : Can hospitableness provide hotels competitive odds over the sharing economy ? International Journal of Hospitality Management. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2018.05.017 Nieuwland, S., & van Melik, R. (2018). Regulating Airbnb: how cities deal with perceived negative externalities of short-term rentals. Current Issues in Tourism, 0(0), 1–15. http://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2018.1504899 Schaal, D. (2017). Ian Schrager Calls Out Hotel Industry’s Airbnb Strategy as Misguided. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/12/08/ian-schrager-calls-out-hotel-industrys-airbnb-strategy-as-misguided/ Ting, D. (2017a). Airbnb Growth sage Has a Plot Twist — A Saturation Point. Skift. Retrieved from https://skift.com/2017/11/15/airbnb-growth-story-has-a-plot-twist-a-saturation-point/ Ting, D. (2017b). Marriott and election buy Varied Approaches to Reviving Classic Midscale Brands. Skift. Zaleski, O. (2018). Airbnb and Niido to Open as Many as 14 Home-Sharing Apartment Complexes by 2020. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-08-14/airbnb-and-niido-to-open-as-many-as-14-home-sharing-apartment-complexes-by-2020 Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a character Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer deportment within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His travail involves the extensive employ of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand furthermore serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In tumble 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and furthermore holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland. Monica Gomez is a graduate student in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. She received her Bachelor’s degree in Tourism, Recreation, and Sport Management from the University of Florida and has held previous internship positions in hotel operations and event management. She is a member of the Hospitality Sales and Marketing International Association and is interested in hotel revenue management.

    June 12th, 2017 in Spring 2017, Technology, Trends

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    By Mike Oshins

    Over the past 15-20 years, changes in hotel ownership and management, the growth and evolution of online reservation systems and the proliferation of lodging alternatives fill altered the hospitality landscape, bringing original complexity to the industry. Two decades ago, a Marriott hotel was commonly owned and managed by Marriott; now, many are owned by one company, franchised with the Marriott name, and managed by a third company.  While customers used to exist able to pick up the phone and summon a hotel’s reservations hub or employ their local travel agency to reserve a room, today online distribution systems relish Expedia, Travelocity, and Kayak are powerful intermediaries that fill everything but replaced traditional consumer travel agencies.  Travelers may elect among many alternatives to hotels for lodging, including AirBnB, HomeAway, Flipkey, and VBRO.  Mergers and acquisitions continue to multiply, exemplified most notably by Marriott’s purchase of Starwood to create the world’s largest hotel company with 30 brands. Millennials’ preferences fill pushed the evolution of original brands with original thinking about hotel design, as demonstrated with Hilton’s Tru, Best Western’s Vib and Glo chains, and Intercontinental’s EVEN.

    hotels

    Hotel companies are expanding their portfolios to include Millennial-focused brands relish InterContinental’s EVEN Hotels and Tru by Hilton. Image sources: Creative Commons InterContinental and Tru

    Travel patterns fill furthermore changed.  China has become the largest exporter of tourists in the world, totaling almost 100 million outbound travelers and representing almost one in ten tourists in the world. Chinese travelers furthermore spent the most money, roughly $250 billion in 2015. For reference, the second highest spenders were Americans at $110 billion.  In the U.S., national discussion about travel bans, original barriers to hiring non-domestic seasonal workers (a key constituent in original England’s summer tourist season), viable elimination of the national Brand USA marketing effort, and tenuous Cuba travel policies are everything creating skepticism in the tourism market.  These changes and ambiguities present original challenges, both big and small, for the hospitality industry, requiring those at the forefront of the domain to anticipate and respond to the subsequent fallout.

    Prolific industry author John Kotter states that the main role of leadership is dealing with change.  Depending on how it’s viewed, with the usurp perspective and pliancy, change can present an organization with original opportunities—the possibility of taking odds of changing demographics, original technologies, or the emergence of original markets.  Change can furthermore raise dilemmas, such as the exigency to address original competitors, contend with a pass or cope with a want of available employees.  Even before developing and implementing successful change management processes, organizational leaders must fill the skill to recognize the opportunities and dilemmas presented by change and know how to mediate about them.  To descry the exigency for change, to identify original realities, either current or future, one must exist able to view the huge picture and the current climate in original ways.  This skill to descry the present and near future from a original vantage point is one of the main reasons generic Electric (GE) CEO, Jeff Immelt, moved GE world headquarters to Boston’s expanding Seaport District.  GE’s original home will “place his leadership team in a vibrant city with a world-renowned innovation scene, instead of in a wooded Connecticut suburb” (Boston Globe), thus giving his senior team a original perspective, and the break to gain closer connections with institutions able to stimulate original ideas and create a original pipeline for employees.   Other than poignant a $240 billion company’s world headquarters—something that’s not always feasible to achieve—how else can one enhance a leadership kit with tools for responding effectively to change?  The skill to mediate more creatively, shape original habits, change paradigms, reframe one’s perspective, and mediate differently by learning original ideas are everything tools that can aid in addressing the first constituent of leading change, that is identifying that change is needed.  The following examples highlight some of the ways one can learn to exist more successful in thinking about and capitalizing on the opportunities presented by change.

    Creative Thinking 21st May 1974: A chainmail-clad John Cleese reads a newspaper while Graham Chapman smokes a tranquil pipe on the set of 'Monty Python and the Holy Grail'. (Photo by John Downing/Express/Getty Images)

    Popular British comedy group Monty Python expressed creative thinking in everything of their productions, further captured by their tagline, “And now for something completely different!”.  Pictured above: A chainmail-clad John Cleese reads a newspaper while Graham Chapman smokes a tranquil pipe on the set of ‘Monty Python and the Holy Grail’. (Photo by John Downing/Express/Getty Images)

    IBM interviewed 1500 CEOs around the world in 2010 and found Creativity is now the separate most primary leadership competency and is needed in everything aspects of leadership.  If one thinks in the same route as everyone else, the break for original ideas (and original solutions) is limited.  The irreverent and offbeat humor of Monty Python is captured in their tagline, “And now for something completely different!”  mediate Different! is the mantra for Steve Jobs and Apple, as eloquently explained in Simon Sinek’s Start with Why. Sir Ken Robinson, author and the holder of the top TED Talk enact Schools execute Creativity, defines creativity as, “the process of having original ideas that fill value.” There are many ways to augment creativity, including:

  • Establishing a culture in which failure is a Part of learning.  “A growing number companies are explicitly rewarding failure – giving cash prizes or trophies to people who foul up (WSJ). Earlier in his career, Johnson & Johnson CEO James Burke once went to descry Mr. Johnson after his product launch failed miserably.  Instead of being fired as expected, Mr. Burke found instead that Mr. Johnson shook his hand and congratulated Burke on the failure.  Along with the handshake, Burke was given the following counsel that became his philosophy: “Business is about making decisions.  You can’t gain decisions without failures.  Don’t ever gain that same mistake again, but please, hold making original mistakes!”  Burke made this philosophy “always making original mistakes” an primary value within his leadership vision. Similarly, Michael Jordan credits his success with skill to overcome the alert of failure: “I’ve missed more than 9000 shots in my career. I’ve furthermore lost more than 300 games. 26 times I’ve been trusted to buy the game winning shot and missed. I’ve failed over and over and over again in my life. And that is why I succeed.”
  • Collaboration.  Ken Robinson touts that creativity loves collaboration as even individual creativity is almost always stimulated by the work, ideas and achievements of other people. Author Daniel Goleman agrees:  “A close-knit team, drawing on the particular strengths and skills of each member of the group, may exist smarter and more effectual than any individual member of that group. Yale psychologist Robert Sternberg calls it “group IQ”—the sum total of everything the talents of each person in the group. When a team is harmonious, the group IQ is highest…The value of collaboration is a arduous lesson to learn in [some] cultures, where the trailblazing lone hero has long been idolized, and where the role of the individual are so often placed over those of the group. But even those working lonesome can learn the advantages of teamwork.”
  • Positive thinking.  It has been proven that merely thinking you are more creative increases creativity. Change your attitude with the mantra: I am creative. IDEO founder David Kelley found positive reinforcement increased creativity for employees and helped learn original solutions to design challenges.  As people become more comfortable with the realization that they can exist more creative, the upward spiral of success is reinforced.  Goleman concurs: “The more you can undergo your own originality, the more confidence you get, the greater the probability that you’ll exist creative in the future.”
  • Challenge the Rules. Pablo Picasso believed in challenging tradition, “Every act of creation is first of everything an act of destruction.”  A questioning attitude of asking “why” multiple times for the same question (e.g. why enact they employ time clocks for front line employees?) may result in discovering established rules may exist hurting more than helping and organization. For example, typewriters were designed with QWERTY keyboards to avoid keys from sticking together if the operator went too quick (i.e. slowed down how quick one could type).  Why enact computer keyboards soundless employ this configuration as a default?  World War II American five-star generic Douglas MacArthur  believed “you are remembered by the rules you break.”
  • Humor. “More than four decades of study by various researchers confirms some common-sense wisdom: Humor, used skillfully, greases the management wheels” (Sala). When people are working together on a problem, those groups that laugh most readily and most often are more creative and productive than their earnest counterparts. Joking around makes honorable sense because playfulness is itself a creative state (Goleman). The employ of humor or “being silly” can reduce stress and create a learning environment conducive to original ideas.  Author Jonah Lehrer agrees: “When people are exposed to a short video of stand-up comedy, they resolve about 20% more insight puzzles.”
  • Brainstorming.  edifice upon the traditional brainstorming technique where ideas are developed in an atmosphere of non-judgmental environment, additional creative methods fill emerged, including Edward Debono’s Six Thinking Hats, where “wearing” different colored hats requires addressing the situation with a special focus, Synectics’ inclusion of springboard and excursion techniques to expand notion generation and intellect mapping to visually develop ideas. At IDEO, brainstorming sessions include the “odd person in” technique, involving people from very different backgrounds that can spark original ideas.
  • New Habits

    Creating a original habit or set of habits is another route to change how they descry things.  In his iconic 1989 book, The 7 Habits of Highly effectual People, Stephen Covey illustrates how powerful an influence habits can exist in their lives. Covey describes a habit as the intersection of knowledge, skill, and desire: “Knowledge is the what they enact and why they enact it [principles], covet is the motivation, the want to do, and skill is the how to do.” His seven habits—Be Proactive, initiate with the conclude in mind, build first things first, mediate win/win, hunt first to understand…then exist understood, Synergize, and Sharpen the saw—provide a route of thinking and acting in industry and life.  By embracing these habits, one can maintain a better equilibrium and create the break to find original ways of looking at situations.

    Barista Kim Jung Mi, a mother who had left the workforce seven years ago and is now employed by Starbucks Coffee Korea Co. under its "returning-mom" program, right, serves a customer at one of the company's stores in Gimpo, South Korea, on Friday, March 7, 2014. Starbucks Korea's "returning-mom" program is Part of a drive to raise female participation in Asia's fourth-largest economy as the nation's first female leader, President Park Geun Hye, tries to counter the effects of an aging population. Photographer: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg via Getty Images

    Through role playing, discussion, and feedback, Starbucks employees are trained to develop habits of willpower. (Photographer: SeongJoon Cho/Bloomberg via Getty Images)

    Charles Duhigg’s more recent bestseller, The Power of Habit, addresses the notion of habits as “why they enact what they enact in industry and life.”  Taking a psychological approach, Duhigg explores the theory of cues (something that triggers a habit), routines (actions taken in response to cues), and rewards (the positive experiences resulting from routines), which together comprise the habit loop.  For example, Starbucks develops habits of willpower to abet their staff deal with stressful times. Through role-playing, discussion, and feedback, they train employees how to react to a cue (e.g., an ireful customer or a diligent period) by choosing a inevitable routine ahead of time (e.g., remaining calm, looking for solutions, etc.). When an inflection point arrives (cue), employees are able to handle the situation smoothly, resulting in the reward of a satisfied customer and successful chaos management. In this scenario, Starbucks helps their staff create habits by helping them change how they approach and address dilemmas.  One employee now thinks of his green Starbucks apron as a shield – when he puts it on, ireful customers can no longer touch him!

    Cue

    Taking a psychological approach, Duhigg explores the theory of cues (something that triggers a habit), routines (actions taken in response to cues), and rewards (the positive experiences resulting from routines), which together comprise the habit loop.

    Reframing

    “The power of reframing things can unlock a vast array of solutions to problems huge and small,” states author Tina Seelig.  She illustrates reframing using a classic scene from the Pink Panther movie (a hospitality example, no less).

    Inspector Clouseau: Does your dog bite?

    Hotel Clerk: No.

    Clouseau [bowing down to pet the dog] Nice doggie.

    [The dog bites Clouseau’s hand.]

    Clouseau: I thought you said your dog did not bite!

    Hotel clerk: That is not my dog.

    We might exist tempted to guilt the clerk when the dog bites Clouseau, but the clerk’s final statement surprises us and causes us to account the situation differently.

    One of the key elements of reframing is to view a circumstance with a fresh perspective. In Tom Stoppard’s play, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, they descry Shakespeare’s classic sage of Hamlet through the lens of two minor characters, and in the Broadway hit Wicked, the Wizard of Oz sage is interpreted from the witches’ perspectives, revealing a more complicated and altered understanding of the Wicked Witch of the West and Glinda, the honorable Witch.  Reframing a situation allows the possibility of original lessons and solutions which otherwise may Go unnoticed.

    NEW YORK - JUNE 6: (HOLLYWOOD REPORTER OUT) American singer and actress Idina Menzel of "Wicked" performs on stage during the "58th Annual Tony Awards" at Radio City Music Hall on June 6, 2004 in original York City. The Tony Awards are presented by the League of American Theatres and Producers and the American Theatre Wing. (Photo by straightforward Micelotta/Getty Images)

    The Broadway hit Wicked, the Wizard of Oz sage is interpreted from the witches’ perspectives, revealing a more complicated and altered understanding of the Wicked Witch of the West and Glinda, the honorable Witch. (Photo by straightforward Micelotta/Getty Images)

    In their approach to reframing, authors Bolman and Deal employ frames as a useful implement to gain sense of organizations.  The four frames, structural (emphasizing roles & policies), human resource (highlighting human needs, skills and relationships), political (focuses on power, fight and competition) and symbolic (emphasizing culture, meaning, ceremonies and stories) proffer different perspective on how to mediate about organizations.  Each frame provides a different language and model in managing, evaluating, diagnosing and understanding and leading an organization.  Altering the route in which they typically frame an organization can abet us better communicate with those who interpret the organization differently.  Viewing an organization from different frames may furthermore unleash a variety of original ideas to address current or emerging dilemmas or raise up original opportunities to respond to change in their world.

    Another illustration of reframing is illustrated, quite literally, in how they view the world. This spring, 600 classrooms in the Boston Public School system switched from teaching the traditional European-centric Mercator map, developed in the 1500s, to the Peters Projection map (1974), in which land masses are more accurately represented in relation (size and proximity) to one another.  For example, using the Mercator map, Greenland and Africa issue the same size; in the Peters map, however, Africa, which is 14 times larger than Greenland, is more proportionally displayed.  This notion was brought to mainstream US in a 2001 West Wing clip by the ‘cartographers for social equality’. At one point, when confronted with these original perspectives, a West wing official asked, “You connote Germany is not where they mediate it is?”— to which a cartographer responded, “Nothing is where you mediate it is.” The issue of perspective and change about their world, met with incredulity in a fictional drama, became reality this spring in Boston Public Schools.

    Paradigms Shifts

    The Oxford Dictionary defines a paradigm as “a typical illustration or pattern of something; a pattern or model.” Scientist Thomas Kuhn introduced the concept of the paradigm shift in his influential 1962 book, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.  Groundbreaking paradigm shifts include examples in areas as diverse as physics, health, and astronomy—think of what Galileo had to Go though to convince royalty that the earth rotated around the sun (Copernicus theory) when most astronomers believed the transpose to exist true.  A paradigm shift changes how they ogle at things. Malcolm Gladwell’s best-selling books focus on rethinking preconceived ideas, starting with his breakthrough 2006 reserve The Tipping Point and continuing with his more recent reserve David and Goliath, which offers several true life examples of when a perceived force can exist a weakness and a weakness… a strength.  For example, an extraordinary tall number of successful entrepreneurs are dyslexic, including Jet Blue founder David Neeleman.  The challenge of dyslexia as a child may provide coping skills later in life – billionaire Sir Richard Branson of Virgin Air considers his dyslexia his greatest industry advantage.

    AUSTIN, TX - MARCH 15: Journalist Malcolm Gladwell attends 'Bill Gurley And Malcolm Gladwell In Conversation' during the 2015 SXSW Music, Film + Interactive Festival at Austin Convention hub on March 15, 2015 in Austin, Texas. (Photo by Robert A Tobiansky/Getty Images for SXSW)

    “As the playwright George Bernard Shaw once build it: “The reasonable man adapts himself to the world: the unreasonable one persists in trying to accommodate the world to himself. Therefore everything progress depends on the unreasonable man,” from Malcolm Gladwell’s David and Goliath: Underdogs, Misfits, and the craft of Battling Giants. (Photo by Robert A Tobiansky/Getty Images for SXSW)

    In business, paradigm shift examples include disruptive innovations (e.g., the Internet, mobile technology, and huge data analytics), shifting global economies, climate change, employee and societal demands, and changing consumer preferences.  Futurist Joel Barker explains that when a paradigm shift occurs, everything resets to zero, past successes guarantee nothing, and shifting industry models shift to create original realities.  For example, once-successful huge box stores and corporations that could not accommodate to the digital age, such as Borders Books, Blockbuster, and Kodak, went bankrupt. Compare these examples to Netflix, which was able to successfully navigate from their industry model of renting DVDs through the mail to streaming movies and television shows over the internet to augment their market share.  Flexibility to accommodate to paradigm shifts is a powerful tool. As Charles Darwin explains in describing his iconic research: “It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”           

    UNSPECIFIED - AUGUST 01: Biology - Evolutionary theory: theories of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck and of Charles Darwin. Illustration. (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)

    An illustration of Darwin’s well-known notion of “Survival of the Fittest” (Photo by DeAgostini/Getty Images)       

    Self-Reflection and Understanding

    Shifting paradigms and changing one’s perspective starts with self-reflection: the better they understand ourselves, the better they can approach change.  Daniel Goleman provides the multi-faceted framework of emotional intelligence, including two personal competencies (self awareness and self management) and two social competencies (relationship management and social awareness) that should exist examined to abet better understand moods and how they touch those around them. Peter Drucker asserts in order to exist productive over a 50-year work-life it is primary to cultivate a abysmal understanding of one’s self.  He offers several penetrating questions in his Harvard industry Review article Managing Oneself, including “How enact I work?” “Where enact I belong?” and  “What can I contribute?”

    There are furthermore many tools available to abet provide insight into the ways in which they each view and navigate the world around us. With over two million Myers Briggs type Indicator (MBTI) assessments being administered every year in more than 70 countries, this personality profile tool, based on the travail of eminent psychologist Carl Jung, continues to exist wildly favorite in helping people better understand themselves. Key MBTI elements include how they focus their energy (introversion vs. extroversion), the route they buy in information (sensing vs. intuitive), gain decisions (thinking vs. feeling) and their attitudes toward the external world and how they orient ourselves to it (view the world to exist organized and methodical vs. elastic and exist experienced).  The huge Five personality traits, Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO), Thomas-Kilmann fight mode instrument (TKI), and the tenacious Interest inventory are everything additional tools that can abet resolve one’s preferences.

    Identifying one’s personal values is furthermore a tenacious trend in industry today, with a plethora of instruments available for self-discovery.  For example, after a two-day, internal values-clarification exercise, each member of the senior leadership team of the Vail Centre posts his/her top five values on the company’s website for everyone to see.  Determining and focusing on one’s strengths rather than one’s weaknesses is the cornerstone approach to Gallop Poll and Don Clifton’s Strengthfinder 2.0.  This self-assessment implement enables one to identify their  top 5 of 34 different talent themes, from Achiever to WOO (winning others over).  By better understanding one’s natural instincts, strengths, weaknesses and personal preferences, one can augment the likelihood to learn how other colleagues or customers from different backgrounds, cultures, generations or perspectives descry things differently, enabling original approaches or frames to address change.

    In his book, The Spirit to Serve, Marriott International founder J.W. Marriott, Jr.  adopted 19th century philosophy Alfred North Whitehead’s  perspective when developing the Marriott Way, “The craft of progress is to preserve order amid change and to preserve change amid order.”  The skill to mediate differently as the hospitality industry moves into uncharted territories—both nationally and internationally, within organizations and in local markets, online and in person—is becoming more primary as change continues to evolve at a faster pace than ever before.  Being brisk and open-minded enough to adapt, addressing challenges and/or seizing opportunities, will determine which companies wither away and which ones thrive.  At the heart of these circumstances is the skill to recognize trends, realize the exigency for change and act on these situations in ways that navigate the needs of an organization, and its staff and customers.  Mental flexibility, adaptability, creativity and personal awareness are key tools in this process that can abet hospitality leaders descry things from different perspectives, gain original insights, develop and pilot original ideas and better respond to an ever-changing world.

    PDF Version Available Here

    Oshins

    Michael Oshins is Associate Professor of the drill of Leadership in the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. He is former Vice President of Integer Dynamics, a hospitality consulting solid focused on operational productivity and technology. He holds a doctorate in human resource education from Boston University and a master’s degree in hotel administration from Cornell University. Email: moshins@bu.edu References
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  • June 7th, 2017 in Hotels, Sharing Economy, Spring 2017, Trends, Uncategorized

    Left: Boston-area Airbnb hosts prepares her spare leeway for rent Right: A suite at the Godfrey Hotel, a recent addition to Boston's hotel offerings. Photo Sources: Getty Images

    Left: Boston-area Airbnb hosts prepares her spare leeway for rent Right: A suite at the Godfrey Hotel, a recent addition to Boston’s hotel offerings. Photo Sources: Getty Images

    By Tarik Dogru, Makarand Mody, and Courtney Suess

    If you are in the hotel industry, chances are that Airbnb has foster up in conversation at some point or another. The sharing economy phenomenon and the economic, social, and technological changes fueling its growth fill challenged the hotel industry to rethink its experiential value proposition to the customer (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, in press). Airbnb founder and CEO Brian Chesky tweeted that “Airbnb hosted more than 2 million guests in the past original Year’s Eve,” and that with the eventual round of financing, which was $1 billion, Airbnb is now valued at $31 billion (Yurieff, 2017). As a result, Airbnb has been at the core of discussions in the world of hospitality and beyond, mainly due to its potential and uncalculated impacts. On one hand, Airbnb might fill positive economic impacts on hospitality and tourism institutions, such as restaurants, bars, and other zone attractions, through increases in income and job creations. On the other hand, potential adverse economic impacts of Airbnb cannot exist overlooked: Airbnb might negatively touch the hotel industry, if visitors were to shift their demand from hotels to Airbnb accommodations. However, it is not yet limpid whether Airbnb is taking a share of the existing hotel industry pie or increasing the size of the overall accommodations industry.

    LOS ANGELES, CA - NOVEMBER 17: Airbnb founder/CEO Brian Chesky speaks onstage at "Introducing Trips" disclose at Airbnb Open LA on November 17, 2016 in Los Angeles, California. (Photo by Stefanie Keenan/Getty Images for Airbnb)

    Brian Chesky, Airbnb CEO and founder, tweeted that “Airbnb hosted more than 2 million guests in the past original Year’s Eve”. Photo Source: Getty Images. Photo by Stefanie Keenan/Getty Images for Airbnb

    The results from the most comprehensive study analyzing the effects of Airbnb on the hotel industry showed that a 1% augment in Airbnb listings decreases hotel revenue by 0.05% (Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2016). Thus, although negative effects on hotel revenues by route of Airbnb were reported in this study, the magnitude of these effects was small in the given location of Texas. On the other hand, a study conducted in Korea showed that Airbnb does not touch hotel revenues at everything (Choi, Jung, Ryu, enact Kim, & Yoon, 2015). A recent study conducted by Smith Travel Research (STR) in 13 global markets reported that Airbnb listings did not touch hotel demand and revenues (Haywood, Mayock, Freitag, Owoo, & Fiorilla, 2017).

    While there are limited studies from which to draw definitive conclusions on the effects of Airbnb on the hotel industry, according to Mr. Chesky, Airbnb does not directly compete with the hotel industry. He claims that Airbnb guests are not typical hotel customers, but rather those who would fill stayed with friends and family (Intelligence, 2017). Although Airbnb argues that it brings original visitors to destinations and that 70% of its listings are outside of hotel districts, a report by Morgan Stanley indicates that about 42% and 36% of Airbnb guests switched from hotels and bed and breakfasts respectively, whereas only 31% of Airbnb guests limn those who would fill stayed with friends and family (Intelligence, 2017). Furthermore, a recent study conducted in Los Angeles showed that more than 60% of the properties listed on Airbnb are solely used for commercial purposes and thus are excluded from the residential true estate market (Lee, 2016). According to a recent report by CBRE, revenue generated by hosts renting out two or more units was about $1.8 billion, and hosts renting out ten or more units generated $175 million in 13 major US markets in 2016 (CBRE, 2017). Despite this massive amount of generated revenue, the hosts are generally not paying taxes on their properties.

    While there seems to exist free-riders on the market that buy odds of the sharing economy platforms relish Airbnb by listing multiple properties, based on the current knowledge, it is soundless not limpid whether Airbnb has an adverse sequel on the hotel industry. The present study compares the hotel industry and Airbnb in terms of key performance metrics, including occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR, to determine whether and how Airbnb affects the hotel industry in Boston. Boston is a tenacious hotel market, but italso has a considerable and growing Airbnb supply, so it provides an excellent context for their analysis.

    In their analyses, they treated Airbnb as an accommodation solid to resolve whether it is directly competing with hotels in Boston. Accordingly, the number of Airbnb units listed and the number of units rented (including entire homes and private and shared rooms) multiplied by the number of days in a specified time term constitute Airbnb supply and demand figures, respectively. Occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR were calculated following the same methodology used to compute these statistics in hotel industry. The Airbnb and hotel data were provided by Airdna and STR, respectively. They analyzed data for the term between January 2015 and September 2016.

    ANALYSIS Comparing changes in supply and demand

    Tables 1 and 2 present the supply, demand, and revenue statistics for Airbnb and hotels in the city of Boston during the analysis period.

    Table 1. Airbnb Supply and Demand Period Airbnb Supply % Change in Supply Airbnb Demand % Change in Demand Jan-15 79,110 N/A 575 N/A Feb-15 85,890 8.6 4,506 683.7 Mar-15 91,710 6.8 7,811 73.3 Apr-15 106,380 16.0 18,733 139.8 May-15 114,330 7.5 30,547 63.1 Jun-15 123,180 7.7 38,545 26.2 Jul-15 122,670 -0.4 51,378 33.3 Aug-15 119,580 -2.5 37,555 -26.9 Sep-15 128,730 7.7 51,757 37.8 Oct-15 142,470 10.7 41,011 -20.8 Nov-15 363,660 155.3 76,451 86.4 Dec-15 383,880 5.6 65,064 -14.9 Jan-16 380,910 -0.8 73,300 12.7 Feb-16 375,480 -1.4 101,409 38.3 Mar-16 372,540 -0.8 112,501 10.9 Apr-16 373,050 0.1 134,951 20.0 May-16 374,970 0.5 137,347 1.8 Jun-16 378,870 1.0 147,947 7.7 Jul-16 385,260 1.7 148,473 0.4 Aug-16 385,620 0.1 123,588 -16.8 Sep-16 390,270 1.2 107,690 -12.9 Table 2. Hotel Supply and Demand Period Hotel Supply % Change in Supply Hotel Demand % Change in Demand Jan-15  1,588,843  N/A  896,065  N/A Feb-15  1,436,512 -9.6  901,459 0.6 Mar-15  1,598,701 11.3  1,200,426 33.2 Apr-15  1,550,910 -3.0  1,216,283 1.3 May-15  1,605,304 3.5  1,328,932 9.3 Jun-15  1,558,800 -2.9  1,357,872 2.2 Jul-15  1,610,760 3.3  1,413,521 4.1 Aug-15  1,616,278 0.3  1,393,622 -1.4 Sep-15  1,564,170 -3.2  1,335,976 -4.1 Oct-15  1,616,340 3.3  1,394,364 4.4 Nov-15  1,564,170 -3.2  1,105,292 -20.7 Dec-15  1,616,309 3.3  906,619 -18.0 Jan-16  1,632,367 1.0  909,132 0.3 Feb-16  1,482,796 -9.2  895,546 -1.5 Mar-16  1,646,410 11.0  1,150,937 28.5 Apr-16  1,593,300 -3.2  1,273,368 10.6 May-16  1,650,409 3.6  1,303,974 2.4 Jun-16  1,603,050 -2.9  1,366,553 4.8 Jul-16  1,656,392 3.3  1,406,893 3.0 Aug-16  1,667,955 0.7  1,403,774 -0.2 Sep-16  1,622,130 -2.7  1,347,565 -4.0

    The number of Airbnb listings has increased dramatically from 79,110 in January 2015 to 390,270 in September 2016. While the highest growth in hotel leeway supply was about 11% month-over-month (in March 2016), Airbnb supply experienced a phenomenal growth rate of 155% (in November 2015). Extraordinary changes in hotel leeway supply might exist due to renovations and the completions of ongoing projects in the pipeline. However, the extreme supply shocks in the case of Airbnb are due to the greater flexibility of adding or removing existing residential properties in the market.

    Changes in demand were greater than the changes in supply for both Airbnb and the hotel industry. Yet overall trends witness that Airbnb experienced greater increases in demand as compared to the increases in the demand for hotel rooms. For example, Airbnb demand increased by 684%, 140%, and 33% in February, April, and July 2015 respectively, whereas hotel demand only increased by 0.6%, 1.3%, and 4.1% during these months. Although the changes in demand for Airbnb and the hotel industry during the analysis term were, for most part, in the same direction (albeit to varying degrees), there were some anomalies where the changes occurred in the antithetical direction. For example, in September and November 2015, while hotel demand decreased by around 4% and 21% respectively, the demand for Airbnb accommodations increased by about 38% and 86% respectively. Also, demand for Airbnb accommodations decreased by 21% in October 2015, whereas hotel demand increased by 4% during the same period.

    Comparing Occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR

    Tables 3 and 4 shows occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR statistics for Airbnb and hotels in the city of Boston during the analysis period.

    Table 3. Airbnb OCC-ADR-RevPAR Period Airbnb Occupancy Airbnb

    ADR

    Airbnb RevPAR Jan-15 0.70 $158.86  $1.15 Feb-15 5.20 $133.05  $6.98 Mar-15 8.50 $153.44  $13.07 Apr-15 17.6 $161.00  $28.35 May-15 26.7 $134.61  $35.97 Jun-15 31.3 $186.51  $58.36 Jul-15 41.9 $180.12  $75.44 Aug-15 31.4 $142.24  $44.67 Sep-15 40.2 $183.34  $73.71 Oct-15 28.8 $171.78  $49.45 Nov-15 21.0 $151.97  $31.95 Dec-15 16.9 $149.88  $25.40 Jan-16 19.2 $142.60  $27.44 Feb-16 27.0 $160.89  $43.45 Mar-16 30.2 $156.35  $47.22 Apr-16 36.2 $158.33  $57.27 May-16 36.6 $160.96  $58.96 Jun-16 39.0 $187.26  $73.13 Jul-16 38.5 $176.45  $68.00 Aug-16 32.0 $145.23  $46.55 Sep-16 27.6 $159.41  $43.99 Table 4. Hotel OCC-ADR-RevPAR Period Hotel Occupancy Hotel

    ADR

    Hotel RevPAR Jan-15 56.4 $142.74 $80.50 Feb-15 62.8 $144.29 $90.55 Mar-15 75.1 $170.58 $128.08 Apr-15 78.4 $188.01 $147.44 May-15 82.8 $205.62 $170.22 Jun-15 87.1 $206.68 $180.04 Jul-15 87.8 $200.44 $175.90 Aug-15 86.2 $193.64 $166.96 Sep-15 85.4 $209.00 $178.51 Oct-15 86.3 $220.10 $189.87 Nov-15 70.7 $183.17 $129.43 Dec-15 56.1 $147.97 $83.00 Jan-16 55.7 $146.43 $81.55 Feb-16 60.4 $146.65 $88.57 Mar-16 69.9 $171.94 $120.20 Apr-16 79.9 $201.51 $161.04 May-16 79.0 $207.29 $163.78 Jun-16 85.2 $212.35 $181.02 Jul-16 84.9 $199.52 $169.47 Aug-16 84.2 $198.45 $167.02 Sep-16 83.1 $219.26 $182.15

    Hotel occupancy rates decreased to 83% in September 2016 from 85% in the same term of the previous year, whereas Airbnb’s occupancy has seen a greater abate from 40% to 28% in the same period. In February 2015, Airbnb’s occupancy was around 5% and reached about 28% in September 2016. While Airbnb experienced a histrionic augment in occupancy growth throughout the analysis period, these gains did not seem to touch the hotel industry’s occupancy rates.

    Although hotel ADR was generally greater than that of Airbnb, Airbnb’s ADR figures were greater than hotel ADR in three months (January 2015, December 2015, and February 2016). Hotel ADR was $209 in September 2015 and increased to about $219 in September 2016. Despite the lower occupancy in hotels in September 2016 as compared to the same time in the previous year (September 2015), the RevPAR was comparatively higher even after correcting for inflation. (Note: The RevPAR increased from $75.17 to $75.58 based on 1982=100 prices.) A limpid trend can exist observed in hotel ADR and RevPAR figures through 2015, and this trend seemed to persist in 2016 in terms of the month-over-month growth rates. However, Airbnb ADR and RevPAR seemed to fluctuate throughout 2015 and enact not seem to supervene a seasonal movement. Indeed, supply and demand dynamics may fill caused the changes in Airbnb ADR and RevPAR, where the equilibrium cost is set within the Airbnb market. However, the want of revenue management practices by Airbnb hosts might furthermore fill contributed to these fluctuations in ADR and RevPAR.

    Boston Change in supply Airbnb vs Hotels

    Change in demand Airbnb vs Hotels BostonChange in occupancy Airbnb vs Hotels Boston

    Figure 4

    Change in RevPAR Airbnb vs Hotels BostonBoston Hotel Perforamnce Trends 2005-2016 12 years

    Hotel performance before and after the arrival of Airbnb

    We further analyzed the hotel industry trends for Boston during eventual 12 years (presented in Table 5), both before and after Airbnb’s entry into the market, to determine whether Airbnb has an sequel on hotel supply, demand, and revenue dynamics. The hotel leeway supply has continued to grow, which suggests that hotel industry seem to continue to grow despite the mount of the Airbnb. The hotel industry’s occupancy saw its lowest point in 2009 and reached over 85% in 2015. Although hotel occupancy experienced a few declines year over year, these decreases issue to exist due to supply shocks. For example, in 2016, occupancy decreased by about 2.7%; however, supply growth was around 3.7%. That is, the decline cannot exist entirely attributed to the growth in Airbnb. Despite the declines in occupancy, both ADR and RevPAR fill continued to augment without a decline after the pass term and around the arrival of Airbnb onto the scene (2008-2009), and reached their peak in September 2016.

    Table 5. Historical Hotel Dynamics Period Supply Demand Occupancy ADR RevPAR Sep-05 1418370 1092599 77.0  $143.85  $110.81 Sep-06 1460070 1095808 75.1  $152.20  $114.23 Sep-07 1472790 1164487 79.1  $165.97  $131.23 Sep-08 1492830 1105819 74.1  $171.52  $127.06 Sep-09 1504560 1091371 72.5  $143.20  $103.88 Sep-10 1512540 1176147 77.8  $155.26  $120.73 Sep-11 1512810 1225707 81.0  $162.31  $131.51 Sep-12 1528290 1208011 79.0  $170.08  $134.43 Sep-13 1538100 1251193 81.3  $180.20  $146.58 Sep-14 1537860 1306622 85.0  $202.38  $171.95 Sep-15 1564170 1335976 85.4  $209.00  $178.51 Sep-16 1622130 1347565 83.1  $219.26  $182.15 So, has Airbnb impacted hotel performance in Boston? The data suggests “no”!

    Hotels were able to sell more rooms over the eventual 12 years—that is, more people stayed in hotels in 2016 compared to previous years, despite the demand that was captured by Airbnb. Although it is not limpid whether the excess demand in the overall accommodations market was created solely because of Airbnb, the additional demand, at least to some extent, could fill been accommodated by hotels in Boston. Hotels in the city have, on average, around 83% occupancy. Thus, for example, if the Airbnb guests were to exist captured by the hotels in Boston, the middling hotel occupancy would fill been around 90% in September 2016. However, considering the fact that Airbnb’s ADR was lower than that of hotels ($159 vs. $219), hotels would probably fill captured the Airbnb demand within this lower Airbnb cost range. It should furthermore exist eminent that, historically, the hotel occupancy in the Boston market has fluctuated between 74 and 85%. With this in mind, Airbnb does not seem to whip from the hotel industry’s market share, but rather seems to fill created original demand. Although correlation does not witness causation, the correlation coefficients between hotel and Airbnb supply, demand, revenue, occupancy, ADR, and RevPAR (presented in Table 6) furthermore intimate that Airbnb does not seem to adversely touch the hotel industry in Boston.

    Table 6. Correlations Hotel Supply Hotel Demand Hotel Occupancy Hotel ADR Hotel RevPAR Airbnb Supply 0.386 Airbnb Demand 0.289 Airbnb Occupancy 0.716 Airbnb ADR 0.494 Airbnb RevPAR 0.358

    Nevertheless, as Table 7 indicates, Airbnb has been able to augment its market share quite remarkably. In particular, Airbnb’s market share in terms of supply has increased from about 5% in January 2015 to about 19% of the overall accommodation market (i.e., available leeway nights) in September 2016. Theoretically, the Airbnb supply can exist as big as the residential true estate market in a location. However, it takes a few years to develop a hotel and thus boost the hotel leeway supply in the market, so comparing the market share in terms of supply is less than ideal. Airbnb’s market share in terms of demand furthermore shows significant growth, from less than 0.1% in January 2015 to more than 7% in September 2016. Despite Airbnb’s penetration into the market in terms of supply and demand, Airbnb’s market share in terms of revenues was only around 5.5% in September 2016. The lower market share in revenues is likely due to lower prices compared to those of hotels and the want of revenue management practices by the Airbnb hosts. While a 5.5% market share in terms of revenue is considerable for a start-up relish Airbnb, it should exist highlighted that Airbnb seems to fill created original demand by increasing the market size. They estimated approximately $15 million in tax obligations based on the revenues generated by Airbnb during 2015-2016, which is similar to the figures found in the recent CBRE report.

    Table 7. Airbnb Market Share Period Airbnb Market share (Supply) Airbnb Market share (Demand) Airbnb Market share (Revenue) Jan-15 4.74% 0.06% 0.07% Feb-15 5.64% 0.50% 0.46% Mar-15 5.43% 0.65% 0.58% Apr-15 6.42% 1.52% 1.30% May-15 6.65% 2.25% 1.48% Jun-15 7.32% 2.76% 2.50% Jul-15 7.08% 3.51% 3.16% Aug-15 6.89% 2.62% 1.94% Sep-15 7.60% 3.73% 3.29% Oct-15 8.10% 2.86% 2.24% Nov-15 18.86% 6.47% 5.43% Dec-15 19.19% 6.70% 6.78% Jan-16 18.92% 7.46% 7.28% Feb-16 20.21% 10.17% 11.05% Mar-16 18.45% 8.90% 8.16% Apr-16 18.97% 9.58% 7.69% May-16 18.51% 9.53% 7.56% Jun-16 19.12% 9.77% 8.72% Jul-16 18.87% 9.55% 8.54% Aug-16 18.78% 8.09% 6.05% Sep-16 19.39% 7.40% 5.49%

    While it is soundless not limpid from their analysis whether the augment in overall demand was caused by Airbnb or other economic factors, the descriptive analyses presented in this study intimate that Airbnb does not seem to exist competing directly with the hotel industry. However, this was an investigation of the overall hotel market with limited Airbnb data; further analysis is required to determine within-hotel industry effects (e.g. midscale, economy, luxury) and whether Airbnb has a greater impact on asset ponderous hotel-REITs or asset-light hotel management and franchising companies (Dogru, 2017a).

    With 242 rooms, the Godfrey Hotel is one of many recent additions to Boston’s hotel market. Photo by Pat Greenhouse/The Boston Globe via Getty Images.

    Airbnb accommodations may provide substantial financial, economic, and social benefits to the city of Boston if the listings drive additional tourists to the city, which seems to exist the case as suggested by their analyses. These benefits include but are not limited to generating additional tax revenues for cities and local governments, especially to neighborhoods not traditionally visited by guests staying within the hotel-dominated areas (Tussyadiah & Pesonen, 2016), and additional income for hosts, which would understanding a surge in per capita income. Furthermore, during peak seasons or in the cases of mega-events relish the Olympics, the availability of supplementary Airbnb rentals may exist more beneficial than edifice hotels that will later not exist utilized at optimal levels (Dogru, 2016, 2017b).

    However, the positive economic impacts may not sufficiently compensate for the potential decline in residents’ character of life. Airbnb could fill an adverse impact on the character of life of local residents in neighborhoods that hold Airbnb offerings because of nuisances and disruptions caused by visitors. Also, the increasing number of Airbnb listings might fill undesirable effects on the residential housing market. Homeowners might simply whirl their properties into Airbnbs if they believe they can gain more money, which may exacerbate preexisting housing problems in metropolitan cities (Lee, 2016). There is minute empirical evidence on the economic or social impacts of Airbnb to uphold either the proponents or the critics of Airbnb. Thus, the course and the magnitude of these impacts enact not Go beyond speculation for the time being. Moreover, the economic impacts of Airbnb might exist better observed once the sharing economy market is regulated. Therefore, further investigations are necessary to measure the economic and social impacts of Airbnb.

    Summary of key findings
  • Airbnb supply experienced more extraordinary “supply shocks” due to flexibility in adding inventory in Boston. Hotel supply displayed a marginal augment over the analysis period.
  • Airbnb experienced greater increases in demand as compared to the increases in the demand for hotel rooms, mirroring the trends in supply growth for the start-up.
  • While Airbnb experienced a histrionic augment in occupancy growth throughout the analysis period, these gains did not seem to adversely impact the hotel industry’s occupancy rates, or either hotel ADR and RevPAR growth rates.
  • Hotel ADR and RevPAR fill continued to grow following the arrival of Airbnb onto the accommodation scene, continuing their pre-Airbnb growth momentum.
  • Key performance metrics for Airbnb and hotels witness a tenacious positive correlation, suggesting that Airbnb demand is potentially different from hotel demand (i.e., they target different customer segments), and thus, Airbnb’s negative economic impacts on the hotel industry are, at best, marginal.
  • Future research should supplement economic analyses with the profiling of customer segments across the hotel industry and Airbnb and should furthermore examine the social impacts of the sharing economy.
  • PDF Version Available Here

    Dogru Headshot Tarik Dogru earned his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from University of South Carolina, and holds Master’s degree in industry Administration from Zonguldak Karaelmas University in Turkey.Prior to joining the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration faculty, he was an adjunct faculty at University of South Carolina (2013-2016) and research coadjutant at Ahi Evran University (2009-2012) in Turkey. He has taught a variety of courses, including Economics, Finance, Accounting, Hospitality, and Tourism in industry and hospitality schools. He is a Certified Hospitality Educator (CHE) and holds Certification in Hotel Industry Analytics (CHIA) from American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute. Tarik’s research interests span a wide ambit of topics in hospitality finance, corporate finance, behavioral finance, true estate investment trusts (REITs), hotel investments, tourism economics, and climate change. Mody Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a character Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer deportment within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His travail involves the extensive employ of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand furthermore serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In tumble 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and furthermore holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland.

    Suess Raeis New

    Courtney Raeisinafchi, Ph.D spent 6 years designing and developing hotels and restaurants with Jordan Mozer and Associates, Ltd., an architecture solid based in Chicago, IL, after completing a bachelors degree at the School of the craft Institute of Chicago where she studied architecture. Some notable projects she was involved in includes Marriott’s Renaissance Hotel, Times Square and Hotel 57 in Manhattan, NY; both hotels fill received the International Hotel , Motel and Restaurant Society’s Golden Key Awards for Best hotel design. While drafting original proposals for hospitality projects for Jordan Mozer and Associates in Southeast Asia, she began a masters degree, studying hospitality administration, at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) in Singapore. After graduating, she continued to complete her doctoral degree in Hospitality Administration at UNLV in Las Vegas and studied towards a second masters degree in architecture at UNLV’s School of Architecture. Courtney joined the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration in 2013. She teaches the Design and evolution Class as well as Lodging Operations and Technology. She is an dynamic quantitative researcher on the topics of hospitality evolution and built environments, as well as design and atmospherics impacts on consumer behavior. References
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  • Yurieff, K. (2017). Airbnb raises $1 billion in funding. CNN. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2017/03/09/technology/airbnb-billion-funding/index.html?iid=ob_homepage_tech_pool
  • Zervas, G., Proserpio, D., & Byers, J. W. (2016). The mount of the Sharing Economy: Estimating the impact of Airbnb on the Hotel Industry. Journal of Marketing Research(ja), null. doi:10.1509/jmr.15.0204 %U http://journals.ama.org/doi/abs/10.1509/jmr.15.0204
  • June 7th, 2017 in Hotels, Spring 2017, Trends, Uncategorized

    Creative Commons Tommypjr

    Multiple photos, kitchen access, laundry, and friendly hosts are everything listing properties that attract views and reservations. Photo source: Creative Commons Tommypjr

    By Tarik Dogru and Osman Pekin

    The sharing economy has become a major phenomenon; Airbnb, Uber, ZipCar, Kickstarter and many more comprise the rapidly expanding list of pioneers in the world of the sharing economy. This original concept has introduced an alternative platform for consumers, widely known as peer-to-peer marketplace, in which participants are motivated by the notion of “what’s mine is yours” (Botsman, 2010). Unlike traditional businesses, the concept of the sharing economy is a two-way street wherein users at both ends can profit either as consumers, suppliers, or both. Sharing economy platforms allow people to share their underutilized properties through user-friendly websites or mobile applications with relatively lower transaction costs and usually at a lower rate compared to those of traditional businesses. Thus, many people fill started to participate in sharing economy platforms because of the economic and financial benefits it provides both for consumers and suppliers. In particular, these platforms provide cost-saving benefits and convenience to the consumers, while allowing suppliers to generate extra income (Mohlmann, 2015).

    Participants of sharing economy platforms, however, fill indicated that social benefits are more primary than the economic and financial benefits that sharing economy platforms provide (Tapio & Airi, 2015). Indeed, consumers may perceive differently the value of services offered through sharing economy platforms than they enact the value of traditional businesses. For example, consumers may value the sociability, trustworthiness, and friendliness of their Airbnb hosts and the undergo they indulge in during their tarry (Mody, Suess, & Lehto, in press). However, the value placement might exist more closely tied to the dollars consumers spend. That is, the route consumers perceive the benefits from goods and services is likely to exist different in sharing economy platforms. While traditional businesses are behind to hold up with these changes, the mutually beneficial characteristics of sharing economy platforms seem to exist one of the main reasons behind the significant growth of the sharing economy marketplace, which is now considered a major threat by traditional businesses.

    Airbnb, the largest accommodation solid in the sharing economy marketplace, has about 3 million listings, including entire homes, shared rooms, and private rooms, which is more than world’s largest three hotel chains combined (IHG, Marriott, Hilton, 2.58 M listings). Over five years, it hosted about 50 million guests, 30 millions of whom were hosted in 2015 lonesome (Airbnb Summer Travel Report, 2015). In a recent report, STR showed that Airbnb currently has around 9% of the market share in terms of supply. Although Airbnb supply dynamics are much more elastic than those of traditional accommodations, such a big supply capacity might create a substantial threat to the lodging industry (Haywood et al., 2017).The remarkable volume of listings and record-breaking growth in number of guests has caused Airbnb to exist recognized as a “disruptor” for the lodging industry (Guttentag, 2015). Critics of the sharing economy argue that if Airbnb did not exist or if it were to operate by the same rules that traditional lodging firms do, then most, if not all, of the leeway nights would exist booked in traditional hotels. In a recent study, researchers found that a one percent augment in the number of Airbnb listings decreased hotel leeway revenue by 0.5% in Texas (Zervas, Byers, & Proserpio, 2017). These results provided uphold for the concerns expressed by stakeholders in the lodging industry that the growth of sharing economy platforms is likely to adversely touch the lodging industry’s revenue stream. Furthermore, if the hotel demand were to exist shifted to Airbnb, hotel developments in the pipeline might create an overinvestment problem in the market (Dogru, 2017a).

    The impact of Airbnb on big lodging corporations’ revenue streams does not necessarily intimate that Airbnb will disrupt the overall economy or local economies. In other words, despite the potential adverse effects of the sharing economy on traditional industry platforms, the sharing economy could instead provide positive economic benefits for local communities and the tourism industry by generating original jobs and original sources of income (Fang, Ye & Law 2015). According to an economic impact study conducted by Airbnb, guests spent $352 on middling in the neighborhood where they stayed, supporting 490 jobs with an overall economic impact of $51 million from July 2013 to June 2014. The company furthermore suggests that this sharing economy platform helped conserve energy equivalent to 220 homes in Boston during this period. Similar findings were furthermore reported in other major cities in the US and around the world. Although these reports might exist biased and independent studies should exist conducted to determine the economic impact of Airbnb, these findings point out the flip-side of the coin and provide insight about potential positive impacts of the sharing economy on local economies.

    Regardless of the potential economic, social, and environmental impacts, whether they exist positive or negative, Airbnb should exist considered one of the major competitors in the lodging industry, considering its market share and value (Dogru, 2017b). Recent efforts of the lodging industry to “ensure [regulatory] legislation in key markets” intimate that the industry indeed considers Airbnb to exist such a major competitor (Benner, 2017). Therefore, understanding what drives consumers to reserve Airbnb accommodations becomes necessary for the hotel industry in developing strategies to compete with Airbnb. The physical (i.e., space, location, amenities, etc.) and non-physical (i.e., sociability, trustworthiness, friendliness, etc.) attributes, which are reflected on the cost of the Airbnb accommodations, may play a crucial role on Airbnb guests’ conclusion making. In other words, the cost of Airbnb properties is determined based on the value consumers space on the attributes of Airbnb accommodations. Therefore, examining the cost determinants of Airbnb properties may play a crucial role in understanding the factors that drive the growth of the sharing economy based accommodation services. This study examines the cost determinants of Airbnb properties listed in the city of Boston using the hedonic pricing approach.

    Studies that fill investigated the pricing determinants of sharing economy-based services are limited. A number of studies fill examined the effects of reviews, ratings, and host photos on the prices of Airbnb accommodations. Hosts awarded a “Superhost” badge, a status given to hosts with a honorable standing and excellent service standards, post their properties at higher prices, especially when they receive more reviews and higher ratings (Liang, Schuckert, Law & Chen 2017). Furthermore, studies fill shown that guests determine the trustworthiness of hosts from their photos and are willing to reserve more expensive Airbnb properties if the hosts seem to exist trustworthy. However, online reviews and ratings did not issue to fill an sequel on the listing cost (Ert, Fleischer, & Magen, 2015). These results can exist attributed to the fact that, on average, Airbnb hosts fill a rating of 4.5 out of 5, which is very extreme compared to hotel firms’ ratings (Zervas, Proserpio, & Byers, 2015). Analyzing the cost determinants of Airbnb accommodations in 33 cities, where demand and supply dynamics for accommodation services are likely to exist different, Wang and Nicolau (2017) found results similar to those of the hotel industry (see e.g., Chen & Rothschild, 2010).

    In general, factors related to the site and property characteristics, amenities, services, rental rules, and customer reviews significantly touch the prices of sharing economy-based accommodations. In particular, Airbnb listings that proffer amenities such as true beds, wireless Internet, and free parking had higher prices compared to those that lacked these amenities. Although the city of Boston was included in this study, the time term studied was limited to October 2015, and Boston was defined as the greater Boston area. In their study, they analyzed the cost determinants of Airbnb accommodations in the city of Boston, and they included properties listed during the term of January, 2015 to September, 2016. Although the cost determinants might vary greatly from one city to another, the former study analyzed these determinants using aggregate data from 33 cities around the globe. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a city-level analysis to identify the cost determinants more accurately.

    Analysis

    The data was obtained from Airdna, which is a company that provides data and analytics to entrepreneurs, investors, and academic researchers (Airdna, 2017). Airbnb listings with no reviews were removed from their analysis in order to provide more accurate estimates, as Airbnb listings with at least one review will exist closer to the market equilibrium price. The final sample consisted of 2,699 Airbnb properties listed between 2015 and 2017. Table 1 presents the summary statistics of the relative and independent variables used in this study, along with minimum and maximum values of these variables where applicable.

    Table 1. Summary Statistics Variables Mean Std. Dev. Minimum Maximum Dependent Variable Published Rate 215.12 214.17 10 10,000 Space Attributes Entire Home 0.70 0.45 Private Room 0.27 0.44 Shared Room 0.03 0.17 Quality Attributes Cleaning Fee 0.70 0.45 Overall Rating 92 9.40 20 100 Number of Reviews 18 32.31 1 374 Number of Photos 12 9.19 0 105 Superhost Badge 0.09 0.28 Friendliness Pets allowed 0.12 0.33 Handicap Accessible 0.06 0.24 Family Friendly 0.46 0.49 Freebies Kitchen 0.94 0.23 Washer 0.69 0.46 Dryer 0.69 0.46 Free Parking 0.05 0.22 Breakfast Included 0.06 0.23 Commerciality Attributes Suitable for Events 0.04 0.19 Business Ready 0.17 0.38 Hosts with Multiple units 18.34 45.65 1 242 Location Distance from City Center 3.25 1.39 0.19 7.24

    The relative variable, the published nightly leeway rate, averages $215 in the city of Boston and ranges anywhere between $10 and $10,000. They classified the attributes of Airbnb accommodations, which are the independent variables of this study, into six categories. Exhibit 1 shows the attributes of a extravagance Airbnb accommodation in Boston.

    Luxury Airbnb Accommodation

    Exhibit 1: extravagance Airbnb Accommodation (Click to enlarge) Source: Airbnb.com

    Space attributes include entire homes, private rooms, and shared rooms. According to these results, 70% and 27% of the Airbnb listings are entire homes and private rooms, respectively, whereas only 3% of Airbnb listings are shared rooms. Exhibits 2, 3, and 4 illustrate examples of Airbnb listings in Boston.

    Exhibit 2: Shared leeway listing in Boston

    Exhibit 2: Shared leeway listing in Boston (Click to enlarge)

    Exhibit 3: Private leeway listing in Boston

    Exhibit 3: Private leeway listing in Boston (Click to enlarge) Source: Airbnb.com

    Exhibit 4: extravagance Entire Home listing in Boston

    Exhibit 4: extravagance Entire Home listing in Boston (Click to enlarge) Source: Airbnb.com

    Quality attributes consist of the cleaning fee, overall ratings, number of reviews, number of photos, and the Superhost Badge status. A major percentage (70%) of Airbnb hosts require a cleaning fee. While overall ratings vary greatly between 20 and 100, on middling hosts receive an overall rating of 92. Further analysis showed that there were only 242 hosts with an overall rating below 80. The data for the number of reviews indicates the number of times an Airbnb property was booked, since only people who fill stayed in a property are allowed to provide a review. On average, Airbnb hosts had 18 reviews or stays during the study period. Airbnb hosts on middling posted 12 photos of their properties, and only 9% of the hosts had the Superhost status.

    Friendliness attributes define whether the property listed is pet-friendly, handicap accessible, and family-friendly. Only 12% of the properties studied allow pets. While 46% of the Airbnb properties listed in Boston are family-friendly, only 6% are handicap accessible.

    In general, a kitchen and laundry services are the amenities most commonly offered in an Airbnb property. In Boston, 94% and 69% of the hosts offered access to a kitchen and the employ of washer and dryer, respectively. Furthermore, the percentage of Airbnb hosts who offered free parking and free breakfast were about 5 and 6%, respectively.

    As they define it, the commerciality category includes attributes relish suitability for events, business-readiness, and hosts with multiple units. Only 4% of the Airbnb properties are suitable for events and about 17% are business-ready. On average, a host has 18 units listed on Airbnb. More strikingly, some hosts in Boston fill 242 properties, whether they exist entire homes, private rooms, or shared rooms, listed for rent.

    The eventual attribute category is the location, which represents the geographic distance of an Airbnb property from the city center. Distance from the city hub seems to exist low—3.25 miles on average—suggesting that most of the properties are in nearby proximity to the city center, which may create a convenience to the guests.

    We examined the cost determinants of Airbnb properties utilizing the ordinary least squares regression technique. In particular, they analyzed the effects of space, quality, commerciality, friendliness, freebies, and location factors on the nightly published rate of Airbnb listings. Table 2 presents these results.

    Table 2. cost Determinants of Airbnb Accommodations   (1) (2) (3) (4) Space Attributes Coefficient t-statistics Significance Relative Entire Home 0.88 15.60 *** 141% Private Room 0.25 4.33 *** 28% Quality Attributes Cleaning Fee 0.16 8.14 *** 17% Overall Rating 0.005 5.38 *** 0.5% Number of Reviews -0.001 -8.00 *** -0.4% Number of Photos 0.01 10.11 *** 1% Superhost Badge 0.05 1.80 * 5% Friendliness Pet friendly -0.02 -0.72 -2% Handicap Accessible 0.11 3.26 *** 11% Family Friendly 0.10 5.43 *** 10% Freebies Kitchen -0.15 -3.73 *** -14% Washer 0.06 1.04 6% Dryer 0.10 1.71 * 10% Free Parking -0.002 -0.06 -0.2% Free Breakfast 0.11 2.88 *** 11% Commerciality Attributes Suitable for Events 0.06 1.52 6% Business Ready -0.04 -1.88 * -4% Hosts with Multiple units 0.001 6.25 *** 0.1% Location Distance from City Center -0.01 -1.84 * -1% Notes: The relative variable is published nightly rate. ***, **, and * denotes 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1% statistical significance even respectively.

    Key findings can exist summarized as follows.

  • Entire homes and private leeway prices are 141% and 28% higher than shared rooms, respectively.
  • The prices are 17% higher for Airbnb accommodations that require a cleaning fee compared to Airbnb properties that enact not require such fees.
  • Overall ratings positively touch Airbnb listing prices, albeit only slightly.
  • Posting more photos of the Airbnb accommodations positively affects prices at a corresponding rate. That is, a 1% augment in number of photos augment prices by 1%.
  • Airbnb accommodations listed by superhosts fill 5% higher prices compared to those of hosts without such status.
  • The cost increases 10% if Airbnb accommodations are handicap accessible.
  • Family-friendly Airbnb accommodations fill 11% higher prices.
  • Offering access to a washer and dryer increases prices by 6% and 10%, respectively.
  • Serving free breakfast increases prices by 11%, compared to the Airbnb accommodations that enact not proffer free breakfast.
  • Airbnb accommodations that are suitable for events fill 6% higher rates.
  • A 1% augment in the number of reviews decreases prices by 0.4%.
  • The prices of Airbnb accommodations with a kitchen are 14% lower.
  • Airbnb listings that are defined as “business ready,” which provide additional amenities for industry travelers, fill 4% lower prices than those of without this status.
  • Prices of Airbnb accommodations abate with increased distance from the city center.
  • What enact these results Tell us about Airbnb hosts and guests and what can hoteliers learn?

    The motives driving people to tarry in Airbnb accommodations are yet to exist determined for certain. Although Airbnb guests might space more value on the sociability, trustworthiness, and friendliness of their Airbnb hosts and the experience, Airbnb guests are, to some extent, economically motivated. That is, Airbnb guests might exist specifically comparing Airbnb and traditional hotels for cost-saving purposes. The results of their study showed that Airbnb guests space more value on space, cleanliness, number of photos, handicap accessibility, family friendliness, free breakfast, location, and unique experiences. Based on this information, hotel firms might focus on these factors to attract guests from Airbnb’s consumer base.

    Airbnb guests pay more for space and privacy, despite the conception that the sharing economy is a social platform wherein participants are motivated by potential social interactions. While such social interactions may soundless occur when guests rent entire homes, they either value privacy and hence enact not want to live with the host, or they value the space because they are traveling in huge groups and they require more zone in which to spread out. Despite the potential economic gains, Airbnb guests seem to pay extra for cleanliness. Specifically, Airbnb guests pay an additional cleaning fee that may ambit between $5 and $700 and furthermore pay 17% higher rates compared to properties that enact not require cleaning fees. Airbnb guests pay less for properties that allow access to the kitchen, suggesting that these properties are regular apartments, condos, and houses and that Airbnb guests are not likely to pay extreme prices for staying in such properties. The cost inequity might rather exist due to the rate deviation within Airbnb listings, where unique properties, such as treehouses, villas, and yachts, are posted and guests pay more for the experience. However, further research is required to resolve this issue. Airbnb guests furthermore cherish and pay more for more photos of the Airbnb properties; however, they pay lower rates for Airbnb properties that seem to fill commercial purposes. Previous studies fill shown that Airbnb hosts enact not seem to utilize revenue management practices, which serve to maximize hosts’ profits, but rather list their properties around the median market cost (Tapio Ikkala & Airi Lampinen, 2015). Their results may usher Airbnb hosts in determining their properties’ rates. For example, Airbnb hosts may proffer free breakfast and hence augment their rates by about 10%.

    In conclusion, Airbnb guests pay higher rates for space, quality, friendliness, and unique experiences. To compete with Airbnb properties, traditional hotels should create more opportunities for unique experiences, post more photos of the hotel and guest rooms and provide a family-friendly environment. In particular, hotel firms might proffer alternative packages to attract Airbnb guests, especially when operating at lower occupancies. Hence, it may exist the time for hotels to include Airbnb in their competitive sets or regularly track Airbnb demand and supply dynamics, especially in the markets with a big Airbnb presence.

    PDF Version Available Here

    Dogru HeadshotTarik Dogru earned his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from University of South Carolina, and holds Master’s degree in industry Administration from Zonguldak Karaelmas University in Turkey.Prior to joining the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration faculty, he was an adjunct faculty at University of South Carolina (2013-2016) and research coadjutant at Ahi Evran University (2009-2012) in Turkey. He has taught a variety of courses, including Economics, Finance, Accounting, Hospitality, and Tourism in industry and hospitality schools. He is a Certified Hospitality Educator (CHE) and holds Certification in Hotel Industry Analytics (CHIA) from American Hotel & Lodging Educational Institute. Tarik’s research interests span a wide ambit of topics in hospitality finance, corporate finance, behavioral finance, true estate investment trusts (REITs), hotel investments, tourism economics, and climate change.

    Osman Pekin

    Osman Pekin is a recent graduate from the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration. As a student he served as a research coadjutant and accounting tutor while working as a Food and Beverage Supervisor at the Westin Boston Waterfront Hotel. References
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  • October 3rd, 2016 in tumble 2016, Restaurants, Technology, Trends

    By Christopher Muller

    What is a restaurant?

    In today’s omni-channel foodservice system what exactly does it connote to allege something is a restaurant meal?  Does it connote a full formal dining undergo with a chef-prepared customized meal, presented by a waiter to a guest at a table with a white tablecloth or can it exist a hand-made burrito delivered by a kid on a bicycle working for a third party service directly to your front door?

    Ultimately the question comes down to determining the two main components of a restaurant, food and service. For the food the questions are: how fresh is it; what shape is it in; and how nearby to immediately edible is the preparation of each meal? For the service the main question is: how much supplier labor intensity is required versus how much consumer labor intensity is necessary?

    The Evolution of shape and Function

    Just a few decades ago the restaurant undergo was divided into only two categories, full Service (or “white table cloth”) and Limited Service (or “counter service’) restaurants.  Both were built on the requirement that food was personally served by someone to the consumer, typically in a very structured menu format, inside a simple square meter of physical space.  The diner was expected to fill a working knowledge of this system: being informed of the hand crafted preparation in the kitchen by the trained chef or a skilled short-order cook; the nature of the rational flux of the courses as they were presented; and how to order and pay (including how to properly leave a tip).  For the vast majority of customers this was something done only on special occasions or when dining away from home, and could exist too intimidating to master.

    Then in the mid-1950’s came a original upstart, the Fast-Food or Quick Service Restaurant, which by being systems based and not chef driven created a original approach to how consumers viewed the dining experience.  In a disruption of tradition, both the composition and order of the meal (“…if I want to devour my fries before my burger, who cares?”) and the concept of self service (“…no waiter, no tipping, I’ll gladly limpid my own table”) were controlled by the consumer, not the supplier.  Much of the food was prepared in an off-site facility and assembled to order or batch cooked by semi-skilled kitchen workers. Once the drive-thru window came into play, the exigency to even collect out of the car for a meal disappeared (“…is my front seat a restaurant?”).  Anyone could employ this system at any time during the day. While the QSRs were not originally considered “real” restaurants, dining out became an easy and every day option.

    During the 1990’s the market saw the explosion of the Casual Theme restaurant which took everything of the formality out of Fine Dining, including the white table cloth, and significantly sped up the dining process. Table service was soundless an integral Part of the undergo but with less personal connection to the waiter as food was often delivered by a runner directly from the kitchen. Standardized meal choices were assembled on-site by slightly more skilled journeymen led by a kitchen manager instead of a chef, who used a mass customization process to match the individual desires of the consumer.

    In the eventual decade the quick Casual restaurant came to the attention of the consumer public. This original hybrid is a mingle of the self-service from quick food with the consumer selection options presented by a traditional cafeteria system.  Table service is replaced by a modified multi-phase counter service with customers being given more customizable options, whether by a barista or a burrito-maker.  This customization is made viable with the return of an on-site short-order cook who assembles to order food which has the appearance of being hand-crafted, but is prepared in a batch style and often brought in from an off-site commissary.

    This brings us up to date where they are witnessing an explosion of segments and dining choice. Today they descry a marketplace of narrow segments (Casual Elegance, Food Trucks, Grab & Go, Build Your Own, GastroPub, Convenience Store, Market Hall, Delivery) and other fine grained niches that beard simple categorization.  For example, Panera Bread is a leader in the quick casual segment while filling the role of the top retail bakery/café offer. But it furthermore leads in the technology of smartphone based customized take-out.  The top of the food chain for fine dining is at one and the same time a personage chef-driven stratospheric offering such as Keller’s French Laundry or a standardized, national prime aged steakhouse chain relish Del Frisco.  For the dining public, what exactly does Casual urbanity connote except that there are no tablecloths, there is a wine list and expensive cocktails, no chef and the wait staff wear logos on their shirts? What really is the inequity if I buy a packaged turkey sandwich at a Pret a Manger, at a 7 Eleven, or at a entire Foods?

    Where Are They Heading?

    So, the retort to the question “what is a restaurant?” can really only exist answered with “it depends.”  What does it depend on- mainly how the dining public continues to redefine how, when, why, where and what a meal actually is?  Is a smart phone a modern day vending machine? Is a communal table in a market hall a dining room? Is a “sous vide” pouch heated by a chef in a two-star restaurant a freshly prepared dinner? Is Chef Chang’s Ando really a restaurant or just a conceptual kitchen? Are Just Eat, Grub Hub, Deliveroo, Uber Eats and Amazon Prime just waiters expanding the eventual square meter of personal restaurant service? The answers are probably everything yes.

    When someone wants to eat, it might exist better to inquire of “what isn’t a restaurant?”

    A Restaurant Taxonomy for 2017 A Restaurant Taxonomy for 2017 If I Bring It Home To Reheat For Dinner Tomorrow, Is It A Restaurant Meal? Photo Source: Olive Garden If I Bring It Home To Reheat For Dinner Tomorrow, Is It A Restaurant Meal?

    Photo Source: Olive Garden

    Is Eataly a restaurant or a market?Source: Creative Commons / Mary Crosse Is Eataly a restaurant or a market?

    Source: Creative Commons / Mary Crosse

    What Does It connote If My Pizza Restaurant Is On My iPhone? Photo Source: Pizza Hut Mobile App Screenshot What Does It connote If My Pizza Restaurant Is On My iPhone?

    Photo Source: Pizza Hut Mobile App Screenshot

    If I Pick Lunch Up In 10 Minutes And devour In My Office Is It A Restaurant Meal?Photo Source: Panera Bread Mobile App Screenshot If I Pick Lunch Up In 10 Minutes And devour In My Office Is It A Restaurant Meal?

    Photo Source: Panera Bread Mobile App Screenshot

    How About Dinner Arriving Via UberEats in 3 Minutes To My Front Door? Photo Source: Uber How About Dinner Arriving Via UberEats in 3 Minutes To My Front Door?

    Photo Source: Uber

    Is It Really A Restaurant, Chef Chang? Is It Really A Restaurant, Chef Chang? chris-muller-423x636Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the drill of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email cmuller@bu.edu

    PDF Version Available Here.

    May 27th, 2016 in Hotels, Marketing, Millennial, Spring 2016, Trends

    Airbnb's proffer an at-home atmosphere and depending on the host, includes a variety of unique amenities at an affordable price. (Photo by Getty Images, Britta Pedersen) Airbnb’s proffer an at-home atmosphere and depending on the host, includes a variety of unique amenities at an affordable price. (Photo by Getty Images, Britta Pedersen)

    By Makarand Mody

    No one can negate that the hotel industry has a fight on its hands when it comes to the peer-to-peer accommodation market. A recent PWC report showed that while 6% of the US population has participated in the sharing economy for the hospitality industry as a consumer; 1.4% has served as a provider. Following a chain of acquisitions, Airbnb is the undoubtedly the hotel industry’s biggest competitor. While much of the discussion that follows uses Airbnb as an example, the underlying logic applies to the broader concept of the sharing economy and its implications for the hotel industry.

    Some veterans in the hotel industry fill tried to shrug off the emerging threat by highlighting that the sharing economy is a “fundamentally different business” model, serving a entire original set of consumers, and thus not a direct competitor. A recent analysis by Smith Travel Research of Airbnb’s impact on original York City’s five boroughs seems to uphold this pretension by highlighting that “Airbnb might exist filling a void in the original York City market by providing a different lodging option at a much lower cost point”. Concurrently, the analysis points to the fact that “it is difficult to negate that some demand might exist poignant from hotels to Airbnb”. An American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) report about Airbnb host activity found that the most successful and valuable hosts on the site are a rapidly growing class of micro-entrepreneurs – full time hosts and multiple-unit operators, accounting for around 65% of Airbnb’s $1.3 billion revenue in its top 12 markets. There seems to exist increasing evidence that the greater leeway supply created by Airbnb has helped inhibit prices that traditional hotels can charge in some markets. Such statistics fill resulted in the hotel industry crying foul about not having a even playing domain on various accounts, from occupancy taxes to sharing economy providers skirting health and safety standards. Cities and other jurisdictions across the country are engaged in their own efforts to regulate the sharing economy.

    Consumers are getting more comfortable with the notion of becoming Airbnb hosts with their own properties. In Cuba, Airbnb has found booming success as locals become private entrepreneurs. (Photo by Getty Images/Yamil Lage0) Consumers are getting more comfortable with the notion of becoming Airbnb hosts with their own properties. In Cuba, Airbnb has found booming success as locals become private entrepreneurs. (Photo by Getty Images/Yamil Lage0)

    Meanwhile, sharing economy operators continue along their route to intensify their fight for the hotel industry’s customers. Now that more consumers  themselves comfortable hosting, the supply of operators relish Airbnb seems to exist growing exponentially, offering renters an unprecedented ambit of accommodation choices, from a US$15 per night spot on the couch to an $8,000 per night mansion on a sprawling 100-acre property (and everything in between). Consistent with the theory of the Travel Career Ladder (suggested by Philip Pearce and his colleagues), while younger leisure consumers often travel on a taut budget using the sharing economy, tastes and preferences become more expensive as these consumers become older and more settled. Just relish hotel companies fill their loyalty programs that capture travelers as they progress through their life-cycles by offering a variety of different brands, operators such as Airbnb seem to exist performing well at the differentiation game.

    What About the industry Traveler?

    The industry traveler market is expanding for sharing economy providers. While travelers working for themselves or small companies were the most likely professionals to employ the sharing economy, more industry travelers are using these platforms when huge trade shows fill filled city hotel rooms; in fact, that’s how Airbnb was originally birthed Recognizing these patterns, Airbnb recently launched its industry Travel Ready initiative that identifies specific listings with a industry Travel badge, indicating that the hosts are providing additional amenities suitable for industry travelers. These amenities ambit from ironing boards to fire alarms and CO2 detectors. The company furthermore formed a partnership with a leading meeting planning management company, Experient, for adding Airbnb leeway blocks to official MICE event leeway inventory (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences, and Events), and providing metrics about booking patterns. There furthermore seems to exist an increasing “official” acceptance of the company: the San Francisco Tourism Board recently partnered with the company to provide neighborhood tourism materials for local businesses to abet attract Airbnb guests. Such official recognition by Destination Marketing Organizations (DMO) is likely to further intensify the hotel industry’s efforts to impose regulations on the sharing economy.

    Airbnb is finding both opposition and uphold in cities everything over the world. In October 2015, original York City residents showed uphold for Airbnb while the city council debated on how to regulate the company. The San Francisco Tourism Board recently partnered with the company to provide neighborhood tourism materials for local businesses to abet attract Airbnb guests. (Photo by Getty Images/Andrew Burton) Airbnb is finding both opposition and uphold in cities everything over the world. In October 2015, original York City residents showed uphold for Airbnb while the city council debated on how to regulate the company. The San Francisco Tourism Board recently partnered with the company to provide neighborhood tourism materials for local businesses to abet attract Airbnb guests. (Photo by Getty Images/Andrew Burton) Hotels Advantages vs. Airbnb’s Sense of Community

    There are factors that remain in favor of hotels: for reasons of security, hygiene, and uncertain and fluctuating quality, consumers familiar with the sharing economy are 34% more likely to confidence a leading hotel brand than Airbnb. A spate of safety-related incidents is likely to hold this statistic in favor of hotels: from the horror sage of Jacob Lopez, who was allegedly sexually assaulted and locked in his leeway in a Madrid Airbnb, to the company being sued by a woman over an alleged hidden camera in a rented apartment, there is likely to exist a population of skeptics who are unlikely to rent from strangers. However, the immense popularity of the concept is supported by a host of economic, social, and technological changes in society. A Skift report found these changes to encompass issues pertaining to amenities, diversity and local experiences, a “personal concierge”, a “home away from home” experience, and the skill to develop personal connections/a sense of community. These varied experiential value propositions are evidenced in Airbnb’s strategic platform of “Belong Anywhere”, and, more recently, “Don’t Go There. Live There”; propositions that are changing the route tourists travel within the United States and outside. Thus, while regulation of the sharing economy is likely to even the playing domain to a inevitable extent, the hotel industry must furthermore ogle to contend with the underlying experiential drivers of consumption that are fueling the popularity and growth of the sharing economy.

    Airbnb Research and Training

    According to Chip Conley, the inventor of the boutique hotel aesthetic and Airbnb’s Head of Global Hospitality and Strategy, the company’s focus on enhancing the guest undergo lies at the very heart of its strategic plans for the future. Airbnb has created a hospitality lab in Dublin to provide training to hosts on standards, and to study hosts and guests together in a physical space in an ail to enhance its experiential offerings. The company has furthermore experimented with providing add-on services such as full-service cleaning and stocking facility for hosts in cities such as original York, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. Recently, Airbnb has been testing hotel-style packaging and amenities – such as local treats, wines, and upgraded bath products – in a select number of highly rated listings in Sonoma, California, to broaden its appeal to travelers who prefer more of a blend of a traditional hotel tarry and that of an Airbnb: the comforts of a hotel tarry relish special amenities and treats as well as instant booking, combined with the more personalized, peer-to-peer, local undergo that the Airbnb platform facilitates. Such efforts witness Airbnb’s objective to whirl itself into a full-blown hospitality brand, one that delivers a seamless end-to-end undergo when its customers travel. While the company initially disrupted the hospitality industry by serving as a provider of alternative accommodation, it is now trying to buy this disruption to the next even by competing along the lines of the guest experience.

    Applying Extended Framework of the undergo Economy

    At such a time, the Pine and Gilmore’s seminal concept of the undergo economy can exist immensely useful to hotel companies looking to fight back against its sharing economy competitors. When tall even product and service character can no longer exist used to differentiate choices for consumers, hotel companies must focus on creating unique, memorable experiences in order to develop a several value-added provision for products and services that fill already achieved a consistent, tall even of functional quality. To demonstrate how this can exist done, I not only advert to Pine and Gilmore’s framework but rather extend the four realms of undergo to eight realms.  Examples are highlighted of what sharing economy providers, especially Airbnb, and hotel companies are doing perquisite in each of these realms that the industry as a entire can learn from and incorporate into their own undergo creation efforts. These eight realms are represented in the extended framework of the undergo economy.

    Extended Framework Extended Framework of the undergo Economy (adapted from Pine and Gilmore, 1999)

    Pine and Gilmore’s four original dimensions include education, escapism, esthetics, and entertainment. While education and escapism are classified as dynamic dimensions in which participants personally touch the performance or event that becomes Part of his or her undergo i.e. there is an interactive engagement of the intellect and/or the body, esthetics and entertainment are passive dimensions in which participants enact not directly touch or alter the nature of the environment presented to them. To these, I add four additional dimensions (highlighted in blue) that capture the essence of the type of undergo that the sharing economy aims and claims to facilitate: two dynamic dimensions of localness and “communitas”, and two passive dimensions of hospitableness and personalization. While these dimensions are not exclusive to the sharing economy, providers such as Airbnb attempt to gain them their own by providing for and emphasizing these dimensions in how they develop products and communicate their experiences.

    Getaway, a startup concept of the Millenial Housing Lab, builds tiny houses, currently outside the Boston and original York City areas, places them on stunning rural land and rents them by the night to city dwellers looking to elude the digital grind and test-drive tiny house living. The sense of adventure is maintained by the fact that the exact location is only provided to travelers after the booking is completed, serving as a perfect illustration of Escapism for couples, writing weekends, or those looking to “put a dent in a stack of unread books”. onefinestay is an illustration of the sharing economy at travail from an Esthetics perspective. It offers over 2,500 extravagance vacation apartments in London, original York, Paris, Los Angeles, and Rome, each one handpicked for space, character, comfort, and a distinctive design aesthetic. It differs from other sharing economy concepts relish Airbnb in that each home is selected for inclusion into the brand’s curated portfolio based on exacting standards of architecture and design. The Liberty Hotel in Boston, Part of Starwood’s extravagance Hotel Collection, leverages the Entertainment dimension of the hotel undergo by engaging guests into the creative flux of tall vogue in Boston. Fashionably Late Thursdays is a weekly event that showcases the collection of a vogue designer or seasonal fashions from a major retailer in a live vogue point to format. The point to begins at 10 pm, followed by music, mingling, and signature mixes from the bar. Airbnb’s original positioning, “Live There”, focuses on poignant the brand beyond stays to creating experiences, which include Education(al) activities in neighborhoods and communities. For example, Ranida, a Thai endemic and hospitality management grad, working and living in San Francisco, offers 3 hour long group-based true Thai food cooking classes, allowing guests and locals alike to learn a original cuisine from someone with a fervor for cooking and teaching.

    Airbnb’s previous positioning of “Belong Anywhere”, which the company is using to supplement “Live There”, is centered around creating the sense of community and belonging that its travelers seek. living in someone’s home naturally involves individuals putting themselves out there to meet original people. Airbnb has cleverly used this simple but powerful notion to position itself as a platform that helps people demolish barriers and truly leverage the socially transformative power of travel. Its sharing economy competitor, HomeAway, on the other hand, claims to proffer the most comprehensive selection of rentals for families and groups, allowing them to recreate “home away from home”, a sense of Communitas with those nearby to you. Guest Personalization is an increasing focus for travel brands, with many hotel companies using their loyalty programs to collect information about their guests in order to enhance the overall guest experience. Moreover, technology such as tracking Beacons and Augmented Reality is likely to play an increasingly primary role in the future in terms of personalizing the guest experience. For example, The James Hotels, which has locations in Chicago, Miami, and original York City, offers the James Pocket Assistant, which uses Beacon technology to allow guests to access special offers, view maps, contact the hotel, and request services. The app furthermore lets users buy a self-guided tour of the hotel’s craft collect and notifies users of special offers and perks based on their location on the property. The Clarion Collection Hotel Tapto in Stockholm offers a walk-in closet where guests are given a selection of their favorite clothing brands to try on. If they find something they really like, they can add it to the bill. Airbnb is jumping onto the personalization bandwagon with a original “matching system” that takes travelers’ preferences into account, matching them with homes, neighborhoods, and experiences that meet their needs.

    Standard Hotels provides a masterclass in the employ of Localness. Its original website, with a mobile-first mission, leads wholly with lifestyle content about music, food, arts, and other cultural programming, both on-property and offsite. The website reads more relish an online travel magazine, with the hotels positioned to serve as base-camp from which to explore “the local” in the cities in which they are located. Airbnb’s Guidebooks and Neighborhoods features enact something similar, with stunning photography, local editorial perspective, insider tips from Airbnb hosts, and practical information about neighborhoods worldwide. The eight and final dimension of Hospitableness, which lies at the very core of the hotel industry, is something that sharing economy competitors seem to exist leveraging more so than the hotels. These companies pretension to proffer an alternative to bland, cookie-cutter, inhospitable hotel experiences, with local hosts at the very hub of delivering hospitality in its most primal shape – creating memorable experiences through good-old fashioned interpersonal contact. For example, an Airbnb host and his wife in San Francisco rent out the second floor of their two-storied house to families, and cook a palatable barbecue in the evening to welcome their weary travelers. My own recent undergo in the town of San Luis Obispo in California attests to this dimension. The hosts, a retired couple who seemed truly delighted to fill us in their home, did everything from talking everything about their family and getting to know more about mine, to providing hotel-like toiletries in the bathroom, leaving croissants and fresh strawberries in the refrigerator, and, most memorably, placing a small welcome sign on a chalkboard on the dresser – a well-organized minute touch. Interestingly, it appears that while the hotel industry, to a considerable extent, is placing technology-enabled convenience and entertainment at the hub of its undergo (digital keys, selecting your exact leeway prior to arrival via app, a robot that stores your luggage, Netflix on your guestroom TV, among others), the sharing economy is using technology to facilitate a simpler, more authentic, down-to-its-roots hospitality experience.

    A simple welcome sign that makes everything the inequity in creating an authentic, memorable, hospitality experience. A simple welcome sign that makes everything the inequity in creating an authentic, memorable, hospitality experience.

    Two other elements of the extended undergo economy framework – Serendipity and Ethical Consumerism – can abet hoteliers mediate about the design and delivery of memorable experiences. These elements straddle multiple dimensions, and, as such, can serve as experiential “deltas” that can set one undergo apart from another.

    The very local, customizable, peer-to-peer nature of the sharing economy undergo allows guests to exist surprised by their hosts, exist it with a bottle of local wine upon arrival, or a stocked refrigerator that satiates the exigency for that midnight snack (of course, the safety-related incidents mentioned earlier can furthermore lead to unpleasant surprises). Canopy by Hilton, one of the latest additions to the company’s portfolio adds this constituent of surprise with a property-specific gift to welcome guests on arrival. But hoteliers exigency to mediate beyond gifts to add that constituent of Serendipity to an otherwise predictable guest experience. Last, but certainly not the least, they live in the age of activist Millennial. There is enough evidence to point to that this original generation of travelers is more likely to uphold a company that does it bit for society, beyond the adhoc corporate social responsibility initiatives that gain for honorable PR but are subsequently forgotten. An constituent of Ethical Consumerism can and should exist weaved into the consumer’s undergo wherever possible. There is some evidence to intimate that consumers believe that the sharing economy provides opportunities for a accountable shape of consumption (and travel). The Airbnb machinery has been awake to this marketing opportunity. A recent NPR article talks about how Airbnb is changing the route global tourists collect to know Africa, by connecting them directly to the local economy. The sage of Ndosi, a 23 year ancient from Arusha, Tanzania, is used to demonstrate the company’s “vision” to “create a original generation of micro-entrepreneurs from local hosts to local businesses”. Not only does the article talk about how some tourists staying with Ndosi and his parents “found their family” (Communitas), but furthermore the money allowed him to fund his graduate school education. Many hotels fill been doing their bit for the environment for some time now; with towel re-use policies and LEED certified buildings, among other initiatives. Perhaps it is time for hoteliers to mediate about how the “social” dimension of Ethical Consumerism can exist weaved into the guest experience.

    A Fundamental Rethink for Hotels

    The extended undergo economy framework provides hoteliers with a mechanism to create experiential value. By no means does this intimate that hotels enact not or are not innovating. The examples provided above are by no means exhaustive; there are many hotels around the world executing unique, innovative features along these dimensions of experience. However, the sharing economy providers fill the odds of a immaculate slate and seem to exist making several of these dimensions their own. The emergence of these competitors means that the hotel industry may exigency a fundamental experiential rethink to proactively tarry ahead of the game. Don’t believe me? Maybe Marriott floating the notion of constituent being “an exciting alternative to sharing economy platforms” may convince you otherwise. While one can only marvel how such a transformation of the constituent may buy place, the framework presented here can serve as a starting point for such a rethink.

    Mody

    Makarand Mody, Ph.D. has a varied industry background. He has worked with Hyatt Hotels Corporation in Mumbai as a Trainer and as a character Analyst with India’s erstwhile premier airline, Kingfisher Airlines. His most recent experience has been in the market research industry, where he worked as a qualitative research specialist with India’s leading provider of market research and insights, IMRB International. Makarand’s research is based on different aspects of marketing and consumer deportment within the hospitality and tourism industries. He is published in leading journals in the field, including the International Journal of coincident Hospitality Management, Tourism Management Perspectives, Tourism Analysis and the International Journal of Tourism Anthropology. His travail involves the extensive employ of inter and cross-disciplinary perspectives to understand hospitality and tourism phenomena. Makarand furthermore serves as reviewer for several leading journals in the field. In tumble 2015, he joined the faculty at the Boston University School of Hospitality Administration (SHA). He received his Ph.D. in Hospitality Management from Purdue University, and furthermore holds a Master’s degree from the University of Strathclyde in Scotland.

    PDF Version: Creating Memorable Experiences How hotels can fight back against Airbnb and other sharing economy providers

    February 2nd, 2016 in industry Practices, Higher Education, Trends, Winter 2016

    auditorium

    By Christopher Muller

    On the first day of my HF 100 Introduction to Hospitality Management class I present a lecture that raises the question, “How enact You train Hospitality?” It’s my first Power Point slip and is then repeated as my eventual slip for the day. I suspect (maybe hope) that this question is at the front of the minds of the thousands of people who daily mediate about hospitality education, training, management and leadership.

    In his book, Setting the Table, restaurant icon Danny Meyer (2006) notes that his company, Union Square Hospitality Group, looks to hire individuals he calls the “51-percenters.” These are people who point to a positive equilibrium of 51 to 49 percent between emotional skills and technical excellence. The five core emotional skills which USHG looks for are: Optimistic Warmth; Intelligence (defined as insatiable curiosity); travail Ethic; Empathy; and Self-Awareness/Integrity. He notes that:

    Emotional skills are harder to assess, and it’s usually necessary to expend meaningful time with people—often in the travail environment—to determine whether or not they are a honorable fit. But it’s captious to initiate by being specific about which emotional skills you are seeking.

    It should foster as no surprise that emotional skills are not easily imbedded in a modern university industry curriculum, which is the academic realm where Hospitality Management programs most often reside. Yet many hospitality management students issue to bring with them a tacit knowledge of these emotional skills when they initiate their studies. After more than three decades of watching hospitality students mature I would allege that they certainly exhibit tenacious emotional skills when they head out for a original career. Where then does this knowledge, or alternately, route of knowing, foster from?

    Is there something several about the traditional Hospitality Management curriculum? First offered in 1893 at the Ecole Hoteliere Lausanne in Switzerland and launched in the United States at The School of Hotel Administration at Cornell University in 1922, has this course of study evolved over time to focus on both of Meyer’s skills – originally based on technical skills but now transforming to emotional skills?

    A honorable space to start their inquest may exist to determine this: is Hospitality Management an academic discipline, suggesting it is something which can exist codified, written down, and erudite by specific means? Or as some educators note, is it better described as a domain of study which dwells in the realm of tacit learning and requires extensive personal contact, undergo and observation but may not exist adequately articulated by verbal means? How is knowledge managed by teachers, practitioners and students of the industry?

    Next they should account how innovation is applied in the drill and study of hospitality. Is the industry built on the sustaining innovation of measured small improvements in character and process or on the disruptive innovative introduction of completely original products and services unlike any others which fill foster before?

    On another dimension, they must add a component on the process of thinking and decision-making in hospitality management. Which parts of the industry are more intuitive, heuristic and built on gut-feeling and which are more iterative, objective and built on quantitative data analysis?

    And a fourth zone may exist included, how students and practitioners learn. For example, at which point in the education process is it more desirable to fill a convergent, fact-based and systematic perspective leading to a separate solution, and which point is more likely to reward a divergent, multiple-option perspective where there may exist more than one creative or “correct” answer?

    This paper presents a model using each of these well-regarded abstract constructs in an attempt to foster the discussion and retort the question, “How enact you train hospitality?”

    Tacit and specific Knowledge

    Michael Polanyi (1958, 1966) suggested that knowledge could exist segmented into two different realms, tacit knowledge and specific knowledge. His seminal travail focused on tacit knowledge and “tacit knowing” which he suggested requires a personal involvement at the individual even of learning. Tacit knowledge is acquired in a non-verbal, observant or experience-based way. It is the knowledge where “we know more than they can tell” to others, or possibly even to ourselves. Harry Collins (2010) expanded the definition of tacit knowledge to include three areas, one involving the relational nature of human social life, one including the autonomic nature of the cadaver and one in the collective nature of society.

    Common examples used by both men to interpret tacit knowledge include learning to ride a bicycle or to play piano – thinking about the details of the process often leads to not being able to accomplish at all. Reading a reserve about riding a bicycle will not lead to winning the Tour de France nor will a manual about finger placements in C# scales whirl one into Vladimir Horowitz, no matter how long the study. But months riding a bike through the French Alps with a professional coach or taking a Master Class with a professional musician may in fact lead to personal success. Observing the “embodied knowledge” of experts in a manner which involves personal contact, regular interaction and confidence may create tacit knowledge in the observer.

    While tacit knowledge is non-verbal, practical and undergo based, specific knowledge is articulated, codified, and language based. It is more deductive and logical. Another characteristic of specific knowledge is that it can exist collected in a separate space to exist accessed by both individuals and groups (a library, Wikipedia, or a smartphone app should foster to mind).

    Tacit knowledge is the accumulation of individual “know-how” while specific knowledge is the fact-based aggregation of shared “know-that.” Collins points out that tacit knowledge is a prerequisite for specific knowledge, you exigency to know something before you can interpret what it is that you know. Yet the powerful human trend to share their knowledge, to write things down, to articulate the non-verbal lesson is at the heart of everything education, and is furthermore the driver for automation, digitalization and emerging synthetic intelligence technology.

    Les Roches Food and Beverage Course (Photo via Les Roches) Les Roches Food and Beverage Course (Photo via Les Roches International School of Hotel Management)

    Students who are enrolled in an introductory Culinary Arts program preparing menus of benchmark recipes from the Professional Chef textbook can exist said to exist using the specific knowledge of cooks. Students who are engaged in a rotational Stage with the chef at a 3-star Michelin restaurant who exhibits grace and timing under pressure are mostly experiencing tacit knowledge. Both types of knowledge are necessary in learning to exist a cook, one articulated and one individually experienced.

    Sustaining and Disruptive Innovation

    Dr. Clayton Christianson originally proposed the favorite management theory of “Disruptive Innovation” in a 1995 Harvard industry School article. He clearly owes a big debt to Joseph Schumpeter (1942) and the concept of capitalism being built on “creative destruction.” The current model presents a framework for the creative process in industry formation and innovation. Christianson lays out the differences between the iterative improvement he terms sustaining innovation and the discontinuous offering of the next original thing he terms disruptive innovation.

    Sustainers are the well established and typically market dominating major players in an industry. They maintain their leadership position by keying on the needs of their best and most profitable customers. They accomplish this by seeking continuous improvement of products and services they already fill on offer. There are many observers who rightly point out that this shape of innovation has a significant track record of success, the “standing on the shoulders of giants model” of accretive progress.

    The disruptors in industry thrive most often when they are technically simpler, cheaper, faster or easier than the established previous generation of products and services they aim to replace. The risk is that these same attributes are often furthermore of inferior character and therefore fill a short, volatile, and vain-glorious impact on the industry they hunt to change. But it is the disruptors, relish a thunderstorm providing both the destructive potential of a lightning strike and the torrential rain that leads to original growth, who give us the energy to renew and revitalize an industry.

    The incumbents maintain their market positions when customers are seeking incremental innovations to existing products or services that are already perceived as being of higher quality. These sustaining innovations are often associated with the phrase “new and improved” although by definition nothing can truly exist both original and improved. In many cases step-wise improvements are more likely to find market acceptance than the disruptive newcomers, though the “blue ocean” mindset does hold the capital markets constantly looking for the next original thing just over the horizon.

    In industry education and drill much has been made of the process of Total character Management or the principles of Six Sigma. The step-wise improvement known as the Deming Cycle is another illustration of the application of sustaining innovation in the classroom. The disruptive innovation of Strategic Management, Principles of social Media Marketing, or the study of charismatic Leadership styles, everything where the original is a positive addition to the topics, furthermore felicitous well in the Hospitality Management curriculum.

    Heuristic and Iterative Thinking

    The Nobel laureate economist, Daniel Kahneman, wrote Thinking quick and behind (2011) to detail the different modes of thinking used by humans, modes that he termed System 1 or “Fast Thinking” and System 2 or “Slow Thinking.”

    Fast thinking is automatic, intuitive and associative. The process comes to the surface in the human trend to create heuristic mental programs based on previous experiences, rubrics or tested frameworks. An touch Heuristic conclusion is made quickly using judgments based on minute more than feelings of liking or disliking the remonstrate or situation. An Availability Heuristic is quickly made on the covet to find import and patterns using information felicitous into the immediate present situation. In both cases the intellect finds a best conclusion by rapidly relying on material past experiences or situations that seem familiar and similar to other successful past decisions.

    Slow thinking is controlled, iterative, systematic, or what Kahneman termed “statistical.” This is the decision-making style where thinking about a topic requires attention to detail, focus, and a narrow domain of vision. Each original decision, and the thoughts associated with it, is built on the structures of previous decisions in an arduous step-wise process. behind thinking can exist easily disrupted when attention spans are slash short, but it is the balancing counterweight which keeps humans from acting impetuously or in an antisocial manner.

    Students in a course learning about Entrepreneurship may exist called upon to travail in small groups “brain-storming” original concepts for their final project. In another course they may exist using industry case studies where they will foster to confidence their gut feelings for identifying the best viable alternative from a broad selection of outcomes. First year students who buy Accounting 101 which then leads in year two to Accounting 201 and so on are engaged in an iterative learning process. A doctoral dissertation is the ultimate illustration of a controlled, systematic and step-wise model of original knowledge creation.

    Convergent and Divergent Learning Perspectives

    The theorist J.P. Guilford (1967) offered a generic theory of human intelligence he named the Structure of Intellect. While this complicated theory incorporates up to 150 dimensions, Part of it describes the learning processes for reasoning and problem-solving, which he termed Convergent and Divergent production. People who resolve problems via a convergent strategy are focused on finding a separate remedy retort (consider a question on a multiple election test). In many situations, the convergent learner feels most comfortable in a traditional student/teacher role, with data and facts presented to finding one outcome, for illustration a separate mathematical calculation. Convergent learners collect facts, often from a variety of sources, resolve the situation and hunt to test for the best feasible or optimal solution.

    In opposition to this pattern would exist the divergent learner, one able to identify multiple viable options or solutions. Guilford was very interested in the creative process, which he saw as in the realm of divergent production. A divergent perspective might draw an individual to the arts and humanities, creative writing, or history (where multiple perspective exigency to travail together to find broad solutions) as opposed to science, technology or math as a course of study.

    After an internship or travail experience, students profit from reflection assignments.

    For the Hospitality Management major, convergent production might exist seen in fact-based introductory or survey courses, the proscriptive side of Hospitality Law, or in the financial skills associated with an MBA curriculum. The divergent production side might best exist embedded in courses with a fluid or “what if” set of answers, including Communications, the self-reflective analysis after an internship or travail study program, and the group process.

    The Amalgamated Model

    In order to employ these theories in a comprehensive way, an Amalgamated Model (Figure 1) can exist formed into a rubric using each of the four key competencies on alternating sides of a two-by-two matrix. knowledge is either specific or Tacit, Learning is Convergent or Divergent, Innovation is Sustaining or Disruptive, and Thinking is Heuristic or Iterative. The corresponding quadrants each then intimate a different means for evaluating a Hospitality Management curriculum.

    Table 1 Figure 1. A Suggested Learning Rubric (Click image to enlarge)

     

    The Quadrant Profile

    Expanding on the basic model (Figure 2), each quadrant suggests a teaching/learning viewpoint with specific weight placed on different emotional and technical skills. The ECSI quadrant would reward a codified, focused, incrementally improved and statistical (slow) set of learning objectives. Quadrant two encompassing the EDSH attributes would ogle for codified, expansive/creative, incremental and intuitive (fast) offerings. The third Quadrant with a TDDH mingle encourages learning in an experiential, expansive/creative, discontinuous original and intuitively quick manner. The final TCDI quadrant would involve an experiential, focused, discontinuous original and statistical (slow) combination.

    Table 2

    Figure 2, Characteristics  (Click image to enlarge)

    Application to the Hospitality Management Curriculum

    If they account the traditional Hospitality Management curriculum (Figure 3), both required and elective courses, and ogle at the entire ambit of educational levels, from undergraduate to doctoral studies, the Amalgamated Model can thus exist helpful in creating a typology of course offerings.

    Quadrant One (ECSI) concerns itself with student competence and technical skills, with courses that build on a core knowledge structure or discipline. Such classes as the Accounting sequence (Financial Accounting, Management Accounting, and Finance), or a Marketing sequence (Introduction to Marketing, Services Marketing, Advertising Communication, Consumer Behavior) felicitous well here. A case can exist made that the core Master of industry Administration curriculum is furthermore focused, stepwise, specific and data based and is best located here.

    Quadrant Two (EDSH) is more the domain associated with concept mastery, soundless using the accumulated articulated knowledge of specific topical information. The various travail done in a kitchen or culinary class, based on the multitude of recipes and cookbooks can exist exhibited here. But so can the specific knowledge written down in the shape of industry case studies, where students learn by creating their own system of decision-making heuristics.

    In the third Quadrant (TDDH) the practical life undergo which students bring with them to class gives them an break to learn by doing. Experiential learning in the shape of internships and travail study, group projects and brain-storming original industry concepts allows them to exist creative in a industry setting.

    The final Quadrant (TCDI) is where students gain the focused perspective that enables a measure of expertise to develop. Whether at the elective/concentration even for undergraduates or the process of undertaking the years long process involved in doctoral studies, this is the time when data and hypotheses are tested, and preconceived notions are challenged.

    Table 3

    Figure 3. Suggested Curriculum and Learning Levels  (Click image to enlarge)

    Getting to 51%

    Let’s employ the information shared by Danny Meyer in the quote from above but parse individual phrases to abet disclose how the theories just discussed are informing the discussion:

    Emotional skills are harder to assess, and it’s usually necessary to expend meaningful time with people—often in the travail environment—to determine whether or not they are a honorable fit. But it’s captious to initiate by being specific about which emotional skills you are seeking.

    Emotional skills, what Meyer uses to determine the attractiveness of the “51%-ers” to a restaurant unit of USHG, are as he suggests arduous to assess. These “soft skills” enact not foster with easily tested variables. But there is furthermore the 49% applied to the technical skills of the travail of hospitality to consider. The specific knowledge erudite in first the ECSI and then the EDSH afford the student a route to build up a basis shared knowledge of facts, protocols and historical constructs (Figure 4). These courses furthermore establish the foundation of a shared vocabulary, and mastery of skills which will allow them to become Part of a broader social environment.

    Figure 4. Pathways to Learning

    Figure 4. Pathways to Learning (Click image to enlarge)

    Meyer furthermore suggests that it is primary to invest time in each individual in order to highlight the emotional skills his company desires. The slow, iterative process of constant improvement and character control furthermore appears in the ECSI and EDSH quadrants.

    …necessary to expend meaningful time with people…

    Also embedded in the Meyer observation is the tacit learning only afforded by an individual, undergo based and hands-on set of lessons in the actual travail environment. This is the internship model used extensively in hospitality management education.

    …often in the travail environment…

    To gain his search uniform and standardized, he acknowledges the exigency for poignant from the highly personalized, but uncongenial system of tacit learning. He suggests, as did Collins, the exigency to share their learning and expertise by making it explicit, articulated, and language based.

    …it’s captious to initiate by being specific about which emotional skills you are seeking…

    Finally, although it is unstated in his admonition for everything industry enterprises to include hospitality in their development, he soundless requires employees to fill the technical skills and limpid focus to become experts in their endeavors. Whether it is in the expertise of the Sommelier, the Executive Chef, or the Chief financial Officer, no considerable hospitality company can survive without highly skilled and knowledgeable practitioners.

    A return To Their Question

    So, as I inquire of my students, and indirectly myself, “How enact you train Hospitality?” the Amalgamated Model may yield a better desultory of finding an answer. Not too long ago hospitality management felicitous comfortably in the experiential apprentice/journeyman/master craftsman system of observational study. While material for the passing along of both tacit and technical skills, this system continues to tumble short of the specific knowledge and fact based needs of a modern industry enterprise. Likewise the current ail focused only on financial numeracy and a statistical path to knowledge furthermore falls short in the emotional intelligence necessary to achieve Meyer’s 51% status.  

    Instead of a curriculum being centered in just one or two quadrants, a more holistic approach, one looking to meet the requirements of being competent, conceptual, pragmatic and a content expert may yield a more robust and therefore more rigorous election for hospitality curriculum design in the 21st Century.

    chris-muller-423x636Christopher C. Muller is Professor of the drill of Hospitality Administration and former Dean of the School of Hospitality Administration at Boston University. Each year, he moderates the European Food Service Summit, a major conference for restaurant and supply executives. He holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Hobart College and two graduate degrees from Cornell University, including a Ph.D. in hospitality administration. Email cmuller@bu.edu

    Reference Texts

  • Meyer, Danny, Setting the Table: The Transforming Power of Hospitality in Business, 2006 HarperCollins, original York
  • Polanyi, Michael, Personal Knowledge: Towards a Post-Critical Philosophy ,1958, The University of Chicago Press, London
  • Polanyi, Michael, The Tacit Dimension, 1966, The University of Chicago Press, London
  • Collins, Harry, Tacit and specific Knowledge, 2010, The University of Chicago Press, London
  • Christiansen, Clayton, The Innovator’s Dilemma: The Revolutionary reserve That Will Change The route You enact Business, 2011, Harper industry Essentials, original York
  • Schumpeter, Joseph, Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy, 1942, Harper & Brothers, original York
  • Kahneman, Daniel, Thinking quick and Slow, 2011, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, original York
  • Kolb, David A., Experiential Learning: undergo as the Source of Learning and Development, 2015, Pearson Education, Upper Saddle River, NJ
  • Guilford, J.P. The Nature of Human Intelligence, 1967, McGraw-Hill, original York
  • Tagged higher education, Innovation, Teaching



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