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000-834 kick Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2 (Design)

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000-834 exam Dumps Source : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2 (Design)

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Test designation : Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2 (Design)
Vendor designation : IBM
: 180 actual Questions

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IBM kick Oriented Analysis and

Object-Oriented analysis and Design | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

This chapter is from the booklet 

evaluation emphasizes an investigation of the hardship and necessities, in preference to a solution. as an example, if a unique on-line trading system is preferred, how will or not it's used? What are its services?

"analysis" is a huge time period, foremost certified, as in requirements evaluation (an investigation of the requirements) or object-oriented evaluation (an investigation of the region objects).

Design emphasizes a conceptual respond (in application and hardware) that fulfills the necessities, rather than its implementation. for example, an outline of a database schema and software objects. Design ideas frequently exclude low-level or "obvious" details—evident to the supposed buyers. in the end, designs will too live carried out, and the implementation (similar to code) expresses the actual and comprehensive realized design.

As with evaluation, the term is most fulfilling qualified, as in object-oriented design or database design.

constructive analysis and design were summarized in the phrase achieve the perquisite thing (evaluation), and achieve the factor correct (design).

Python GUI Programming tasks using Tkinter and Python three - Simpliv | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

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Object-Oriented analysis And Design — Introduction (part 1) | killexams.com actual Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The project Of Object-Orientation

Object-orientation is what’s referred to as a programming paradigm. It’s not a language itself but a set of ideas that's supported by pass of many languages.

if you aren’t regular with the ideas of object-orientation, you might too acquire a glance at the account of Object-Oriented Programming.

If every petite thing they achieve in these languages is object-oriented, it skill, they are oriented or focused around objects.

Now in an object-oriented language, this one huge application will as an alternative live split apart into self contained objects, very nearly relish having several mini-classes, each kick representing a different a portion of the software.

and every kick carries its own records and its own common sense, and they communicate between themselves.

These objects aren’t random. They depict the pass you discourse and suppose about the hardship you try to limpid up for your actual existence.

They characterize issues relish employees, photographs, bank money owed, spaceships, asteroids, video phase, audio files, or whatever exists in your program.

Object-Oriented analysis And Design (OOAD)

It’s a structured system for inspecting, designing a materiel via making exercise of the thing-oriented ideas, and help a collection of graphical gadget fashions any through the edifice life cycle of the software.

OOAD within the SDLC

The application life cycle is customarily divided up into levels going from summary descriptions of the hardship to designs then to code and trying out and at last to deployment.

The earliest levels of this system are evaluation (requirements) and design.

The incompatibility between evaluation and design is frequently described as “what Vs how”.

In analysis developers travail with clients and domain consultants to outline what the materiel is supposed to do. Implementation particulars are presupposed to live by and large or completely omitted at this phase.

The point of the evaluation section is to create a model of the device even with constraints equivalent to acceptable expertise. this is customarily finished by the exercise of exercise cases and summary definition of essentially the most critical objects using conceptual mannequin.

The design section refines the analysis mannequin and applies the vital technology and different implementation constrains.

It specializes in describing the objects, their attributes, habits, and interactions. The design model may quiet fill any the particulars required so that programmers can implement the design in code.

They’re most excellent carried out in an iterative and incremental application methodologies. So, the actions of OOAD and the developed fashions aren’t accomplished as soon as, they will revisit and refine these steps consistently.

Object-Oriented analysis

within the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit necessities: define what does the application deserve to do, and what’s the hardship the software making an attempt to limpid up.
  • Specify requirements: narrate the necessities, continually, the usage of exercise instances (and eventualities) or consumer stories.
  • Conceptual model: determine the critical objects, refine them, and define their relationships and conduct and draw them in an light diagram.
  • We’re now not going to cowl the first two activities, just the ultimate one. These are already defined in aspect in requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis side identifies the objects, their relationship, and behavior using the conceptual model (an summary definition for the objects).

    while in design part, they narrate these objects (by means of creating sort diagram from conceptual diagram — usually mapping conceptual mannequin to classification diagram), their attributes, behavior, and interactions.

    in addition to making exercise of the application design concepts and patterns which should live lined in later tutorials.

    The input for object-oriented design is provided by using the output of object-oriented evaluation. however, evaluation and design might too revolve up in parallel, and the consequences of one activity can live used by using the different.

    in the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the classes and their relationships the usage of class diagram.
  • Describe the interplay between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • follow software design ideas and design patterns.
  • a class diagram gives a visible illustration of the classes you want. And perquisite here is where you gain to live definitely particular about object-oriented principles relish inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between those objects permits you to more advantageous live mindful the obligations of the distinct objects, the behaviors they should have.

    — other diagrams

    there are many other diagrams they can exercise to model the gadget from distinctive views; interactions between objects, structure of the equipment, or the conduct of the system and how it responds to pursuits.

    It’s at any times about deciding upon the commandeer diagram for the commandeer want. you should realize which diagrams can live effectual when pondering or discussing a situation that isn’t clear.

    gadget modeling and the diverse fashions they will exercise can live mentioned next.

    gadget Modeling

    gadget modeling is the process of setting up models of the system, with every model representing a unique perspectives of that system.

    essentially the most essential component a few system mannequin is that it leaves out aspect; It’s an summary representation of the device.

    The fashions are continually in keeping with graphical notation, which is almost always according to the notations in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). other fashions of the gadget relish mathematical model; an in depth materiel description.

    fashions are used perquisite through the analysis procedure to champion to elicit the requirements, any the pass through the design process to clarify the device to engineers, and after implementation to doc the device constitution and operation.

    distinctive perspectives

    We may additionally boost a mannequin to symbolize the materiel from different perspectives.

  • external, where you model the context or the atmosphere of the gadget.
  • interplay, where you model the interaction between accessories of a system, or between a materiel and other programs.
  • Structural, the Place you mannequin the corporation of the system, or the structure of the statistics being processed by pass of the gadget.
  • Behavioral, the Place you mannequin the dynamic conduct of the materiel and how it reply to hobbies.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language revolve into the typical modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, although, the most diagrams that are conventional are:

  • Use case diagram: It shows the interplay between a materiel and it’s ambiance (users or programs) within a selected condition.
  • category diagram: It suggests the distinctive objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It indicates the interactions between the different objects within the equipment, and between actors and the objects in a gadget.
  • State machine diagram: It shows how the materiel reply to exterior and internal routine.
  • exercise diagram: It indicates the movement of the statistics between the procedures in the device.
  • you can achieve diagramming travail on paper or on a whiteboard, at least within the initial degrees of a task. but there are some diagramming materiel with a view to aid you to draw these UML diagrams.

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    Object Oriented Analysis and Design - portion 2 (Design)

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    Object-Oriented Analysis & Design | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Object-Oriented Analysis & DesignJune 2, 3, 9, 10Worcester condition CollegeTaught by Jan Bergandy, Computer Science, UMass, Dartmouth

    Seminar Objectives:

  • To develop an in-depth understanding of object-oriented paradigm
  • To obtain a working information of object-oriented analysis & design techniques
  • To learn object-oriented modeling using Unified Modeling Language (UML)
  • To learn about basic design patterns and the role of patterns is software development
  • To understand the repercussion of kick paradigm on software progress activities
  • To explore synergy between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming
  • To learn about key kick technologies
  • Who should attend:This workshop is addressed to faculty involved in teaching programming, software design, and other courses related to software development. It is addressed to those who physiognomy a transition to kick technology and want to learn about challenges and benefits of this transition. The workshop does not require any prior information of object-oriented programming or information of kick paradigm. generic computer fluency and generic information of issues associated with software and software progress are expected.

    Seminar Organization:The course will live conducted as a project with instructor giving short presentations pertaining to a specific stage of the analysis and design process. During this course the participants will construct an analysis model for a selected problem. This model will live refined in to the circumstantial design plane providing an chance for discussion about the relationship between object-oriented design and object-oriented programming. Each student will receive a copy of the course materials and the textbook.

    Tools & Platforms:Rational-Rose CASE toolThe CASE utensil is used exclusively to expedite the process of model construction. The students spend no more than half an hour of their time during the entire class on learning how to exercise the tool. Not using the CASE toll will originate it almost impossible to suffer hands-on any the elements of the object-oriented analysis and design process.

    Textbooks:M. Fowler, ÒUML DistilledÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-32563-2 (additional/optional )

    E. Gamma, R. Helm, R. Johnson, J. Vlissides, ÒDesign PatternÓ, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-63361-2


    June 2, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00Topics to live addressed:Object paradigm top-down - analysis & design perspectiveObject paradigm bottom-up - programming perspectiveBasic concepts: abstraction, encapsulation, information hiding, modularityResponsibility view of the requirementsClasses and objects emerging from responsibilitiesComparison of procedural and object-oriented paradigmsClasses and relationships as the edifice blocks of software architectureCriteria of class qualityIntroduction to Unified Modeling Language (UML)Static & dynamic modelActors and exercise casesTransitioning from functional requirements to objects - introduction

    Project:Analysis of the requirements for the selected projectIdentifying actors and exercise casesConstructing exercise case diagrams

    June 3, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to live addressed:Transitioning from functional requirements to objectsIdentifying the first group of classesClass specificationClass as an encapsulation of a responsibilityClass, Utility Class, Parameterized Class and its instantiationClass diagram - introductionIdentifying relationships between classesAssociation relationshipsAssociation classesRepresenting relationships with cardinalityAggregation versus compositionRepresenting aggregation and composition relationshipsRepresenting generalization/ specialization (inheritance)PolymorphismAbstract classes and interfacesSpecification of relationshipsImplementing classes & relationships (bottom-up view of relationships)Class diagram

    Project:Identifying first group of classes based on responsibilitiesPreliminary class diagramIdentifying relationships between classesDefining cardinalitiesClass diagram

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 5:00 (part I)Topics to live addressed:Static versus dynamic modelIdentifying scenarios through refinement of exercise casesModeling scenarios using object-interaction and sequence diagrams

    Project:Refining exercise casesDeveloping and modeling scenariosIdentifying methodsRefining class specifications

    June 10, 2001 (part II)Topics to live addressed:Events, states and actionsState diagramCriteria for using condition diagramsConcurrency, lively objectsMutual exclusion problemSequential, guarded, and synchronous objectsModeling concurrencyConcurrent condition diagramsActivity diagrams

    Project:Evaluating classes for the need of condition diagramsConstructing condition diagrams for selected classes(Constructing activity diagrams)Refining class specifications

    June 10, 2001, 9:00 - 2:00Topics to live addressed:Introduction to design patterns: Creational patterns, Abstract Factory, Builder, Prototype, Singleton, Virtual Constructor

    Structural Patterns: Adapter, Bridge, Composite, Decorator, Façade, Proxy

    Behavioral Patterns: Chain of Responsibility, Command, Iterator, Mediator, Memento

    Other critical topics to live covered in this course:What to anticipate from an object-oriented languageDynamic nature of object-oriented systems and the issues of garbage collectionEffective exercise of inheritance and polymorphism and their repercussion on software qualitySingle versus multiple inheritancePolymorphism versus genericsClass design and data normalization (attribute dependence issues)

    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design — Introduction (Part 1) | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

    The Concept Of Object-Orientation

    Object-orientation is what’s referred to as a programming paradigm. It’s not a language itself but a set of concepts that is supported by many languages.

    If you aren’t confidential with the concepts of object-orientation, you may acquire a study at The account of Object-Oriented Programming.

    If everything they achieve in these languages is object-oriented, it means, they are oriented or focused around objects.

    Now in an object-oriented language, this one large program will instead live split apart into self contained objects, almost relish having several mini-programs, each kick representing a different portion of the application.

    And each kick contains its own data and its own logic, and they communicate between themselves.

    These objects aren’t random. They depict the pass you talk and assume about the problem you are trying to solve in your actual life.

    They depict things relish employees, images, bank accounts, spaceships, asteroids, video segment, audio files, or whatever exists in your program.

    Object-Oriented Analysis And Design (OOAD)

    It’s a structured routine for analyzing, designing a system by applying the object-orientated concepts, and develop a set of graphical system models during the progress life cycle of the software.

    OOAD In The SDLC

    The software life cycle is typically divided up into stages going from abstract descriptions of the problem to designs then to code and testing and finally to deployment.

    The earliest stages of this process are analysis (requirements) and design.

    The distinction between analysis and design is often described as “what Vs how”.

    In analysis developers travail with users and domain experts to define what the system is supposed to do. Implementation details are supposed to live mostly or totally ignored at this phase.

    The goal of the analysis side is to create a model of the system regardless of constraints such as commandeer technology. This is typically done via exercise cases and abstract definition of the most critical objects using conceptual model.

    The design side refines the analysis model and applies the needed technology and other implementation constrains.

    It focuses on describing the objects, their attributes, behavior, and interactions. The design model should fill any the details required so that programmers can implement the design in code.

    They’re best conducted in an iterative and incremental software methodologies. So, the activities of OOAD and the developed models aren’t done once, they will revisit and refine these steps continually.

    Object-Oriented Analysis

    In the object-oriented analysis, we …

  • Elicit requirements: Define what does the software need to do, and what’s the problem the software trying to solve.
  • Specify requirements: narrate the requirements, usually, using exercise cases (and scenarios) or user stories.
  • Conceptual model: Identify the critical objects, refine them, and define their relationships and behavior and draw them in a simple diagram.
  • We’re not going to cover the first two activities, just the last one. These are already explained in detail in Requirements Engineering.

    Object-Oriented Design

    The analysis side identifies the objects, their relationship, and behavior using the conceptual model (an abstract definition for the objects).

    While in design phase, they narrate these objects (by creating class diagram from conceptual diagram — usually mapping conceptual model to class diagram), their attributes, behavior, and interactions.

    In addition to applying the software design principles and patterns which will live covered in later tutorials.

    The input for object-oriented design is provided by the output of object-oriented analysis. But, analysis and design may occur in parallel, and the results of one activity can live used by the other.

    In the object-oriented design, we …

  • Describe the classes and their relationships using class diagram.
  • Describe the interaction between the objects using sequence diagram.
  • Apply software design principles and design patterns.
  • A class diagram gives a visual representation of the classes you need. And here is where you gain to live really specific about object-oriented principles relish inheritance and polymorphism.

    Describing the interactions between those objects lets you better understand the responsibilities of the different objects, the behaviors they need to have.

    — Other diagrams

    There are many other diagrams they can exercise to model the system from different perspectives; interactions between objects, structure of the system, or the behavior of the system and how it responds to events.

    It’s always about selecting the perquisite diagram for the perquisite need. You should realize which diagrams will live useful when thinking about or discussing a situation that isn’t clear.

    System modeling and the different models they can exercise will live discussed next.

    System Modeling

    System modeling is the process of developing models of the system, with each model representing a different perspectives of that system.

    The most critical aspect about a system model is that it leaves out detail; It’s an abstract representation of the system.

    The models are usually based on graphical notation, which is almost always based on the notations in the Unified Modeling Language (UML). Other models of the system relish mathematical model; a circumstantial system description.

    Models are used during the analysis process to aid to elicit the requirements, during the design process to narrate the system to engineers, and after implementation to document the system structure and operation.

    Different Perspectives

    We may develop a model to depict the system from different perspectives.

  • External, where you model the context or the environment of the system.
  • Interaction, where you model the interaction between components of a system, or between a system and other systems.
  • Structural, where you model the organization of the system, or the structure of the data being processed by the system.
  • Behavioral, where you model the dynamic behavior of the system and how it respond to events.
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

    The unified modeling language become the measure modeling language for object-oriented modeling. It has many diagrams, however, the most diagrams that are commonly used are:

  • Use case diagram: It shows the interaction between a system and it’s environment (users or systems) within a particular situation.
  • Class diagram: It shows the different objects, their relationship, their behaviors, and attributes.
  • Sequence diagram: It shows the interactions between the different objects in the system, and between actors and the objects in a system.
  • State machine diagram: It shows how the system respond to external and internal events.
  • Activity diagram: It shows the flood of the data between the processes in the system.
  • You can achieve diagramming travail on paper or on a whiteboard, at least in the initial stages of a project. But there are some diagramming tools that will aid you to draw these UML diagrams.

    Object-oriented design patterns in the kernel, portion 2 | killexams.com actual questions and Pass4sure dumps

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    June 7, 2011

    This article was contributed by Neil Brown

    In the first portion of this analysis they looked at how the polymorphic side of object-oriented programming was implemented in the Linux kernel using regular C constructs. In particular they examined routine dispatch, looked at the different forms that vtables could take, and the circumstances where separate vtables were eschewed in preference for storing function pointers directly in objects. In this conclusion they will explore a second critical aspect of object-oriented programming - inheritance, and in particular data inheritance.

    Data inheritance

    Inheritance is a core concept of object-oriented programming, though it comes in many forms, whether prototype inheritance, mixin inheritance, subtype inheritance, interface inheritance etc., some of which overlap. The shape that is of interest when exploring the Linux kernel is most relish subtype inheritance, where a concrete or "final" sort inherits some data fields from a "virtual" parent type. They will convene this "data inheritance" to emphasize the fact that it is the data rather than the behavior that is being inherited.

    Put another way, a number of different implementations of a particular interface share, and separately extend, a common data structure. They can live said to inherit from that data structure. There are three different approaches to this sharing and extending that can live found in the Linux kernel, and any can live seen by exploring the struct inode structure and its history, though they are widely used elsewhere.

    Extension through unions

    The first approach, which is probably the most obvious but too the least flexible, is to declare a union as one component of the common structure and, for each implementation, to declare an entry in that union with extra fields that the particular implementation needs. This approach was introduced to struct inode in Linux-0.97.2 (August 1992) when

    union { struct minix_inode_info minix_i; struct ext_inode_info ext_i; struct msdos_inode_info msdos_i; } u;

    was added to struct inode. Each of these structures remained empty until 0.97.5 when i_data was moved from struct inode to struct ext_inode_info. Over the years several more "inode_info" fields were added for different filesystems, peaking at 28 different "inode_info" structures in when ext3 was added.

    This approach to data inheritance is simple and straightforward, but is too reasonably clumsy. There are two obvious problems. Firstly, every unique filesystem implementation needs to add an extra realm to the union "u". With 3 fields this may not look relish a problem, with 28 it was well past "ugly". Requiring every filesystem to update this one structure is a barrier to adding filesystems that is unnecessary. Secondly, every inode allocated will live the selfsame size and will live large enough to store the data for any filesystem. So a filesystem that wants lots of space in its "inode_info" structure will impose that space cost on every other filesystem.

    The first of these issues is not an impenetrable barrier as they will descry shortly. The second is a actual problem and the generic ugliness of the design encouraged change. Early in the 2.5 progress string this change began; it was completed by 2.5.7 when there were no "inode_info" structures left in union u (though the union itself remained until 2.6.19).

    Embedded structures

    The change that happened to inodes in early 2.5 was effectively an inversion. The change which removed ext3_i from struct inode.u too added a struct inode, called vfs_inode, to struct ext3_inode_info. So instead of the private structure being embedded in the common data structure, the common data structure is now embedded in the private one. This neatly avoids the two problems with unions; now each filesystem needs to only designate reminiscence to store its own structure without any need to know anything about what other filesystems might need. Of course nothing ever comes for free and this change brought with it other issues that needed to live solved, but the solutions were not costly.

    The first hardship is the fact that when the common filesystem code - the VFS layer - calls into a specific filesystem it passes a pointer to the common data structure, the struct inode. Using this pointer, the filesystem needs to find a pointer to its own private data structure. An obvious approach is to always Place the struct inode at the top of the private inode structure and simply cast a pointer to one into a pointer to the other. While this can work, it lacks any semblance of sort safety and makes it harder to arrange fields in the inode to gain optimal performance - as some kernel developers are wont to do.

    The solution was to exercise the list_entry() macro to accomplish the necessary pointer arithmetic, subtracting from the address of the struct inode its offset in the private data structure and then casting this appropriately. The macro for this was called list_entry() simply because the "list.h lists" implementation was the first to exercise this pattern of data structure embedding. The list_entry() macro did exactly what was needed and so it was used despite the fanatical name. This practice lasted until 2.5.28 when a unique container_of() macro was added which implemented the selfsame functionality as list_entry(), though with slightly more sort safety and a more meaningful name. With container_of() it is a simple matter to map from an embedded data structure to the structure in which it is embedded.

    The second hardship was that the filesystem had to live amenable for allocating the inode - it could no longer live allocated by common code as the common code did not fill enough information to designate the correct amount of space. This simply involved adding alloc_inode() and destroy_inode() methods to the super_operations structure and calling them as appropriate.

    Void pointers

    As eminent earlier, the union pattern was not an impenetrable barrier to adding unique filesystems independently. This is because the union u had one more realm that was not an "inode_info" structure. A generic pointer realm called generic_ip was added in Linux-1.0.5, but it was not used until 1.3.7. Any file system that does not own a structure in struct inode itself could define and designate a separate structure and link it to the inode through u.generic_ip. This approach addressed both of the problems with unions as no changes are needed to shared declarations and each filesystem only uses the space that it needs. However it again introduced unique problems of its own.

    Using generic_ip, each filesystem required two allocations for each inode instead of one and this could lead to more wastage depending on how the structure size was rounded up for allocation; it too required writing more error-handling code. too there was reminiscence used for the generic_ip pointer and often for a back pointer from the private structure to the common struct inode. Both of these are wasted space compared with the union approach or the embedding approach.

    Worse than this though, an extra reminiscence dereference was needed to access the private structure from the common structure; such dereferences are best avoided. Filesystem code will often need to access both the common and the private structures. This either requires lots of extra reminiscence dereferences, or it requires holding the address of the private structure in a register which increases register pressure. It was largely these concerns that stopped struct inode from ever migrating to broad exercise of the generic_ip pointer. It was certainly used, but not by the major, high-performance filesystems.

    Though this pattern has problems it is quiet in wide use. struct super_block has an s_fs_info pointer which serves the selfsame purpose as u.generic_ip (which has since been renamed to i_private when the u union was finally removed - why it was not completely removed is left as an exercise for the reader). This is the only pass to store filesystem-private data in a super_block. A simple search in the Linux involve files shows quite a collection of fields which are void pointers named "private" or something similar. Many of these are examples of the pattern of extending a data sort by using a pointer to a private extension, and most of these could live converted to using the embedded-structure pattern.

    Beyond inodes

    While inodes serve as an effectual vehicle to interject these three patterns they achieve not panoply the complete scope of any of them so it is useful to study further afield and descry what else they can learn.

    A survey of the exercise of unions elsewhere in the kernel shows that they are widely used though in very different circumstances than in struct inode. The particular aspect of inodes that is missing elsewhere is that a wide compass of different modules (different filesystems) each wanted to extend an inode in different ways. In most places where unions are used there are a wee fixed number of subtypes of the base sort and there is petite expectation of more being added. A simple sample of this is struct nfs_fattr which stores file assign information decoded out of an NFS reply. The details of these attributes are slightly different for NFSv2 and NFSv3 so there are effectively two subtypes of this structure with the incompatibility encoded in a union. As NFSv4 uses the selfsame information as NFSv3 this is very unlikely to ever live extended further.

    A very common pattern in other uses of unions in Linux is for encoding messages that are passed around, typically between the kernel and user-space. struct siginfo is used to convey extra information with a signal delivery. Each signal sort has a different sort of ancillary information, so struct siginfo has a union to encode six different subtypes. union inputArgs appears to live the largest current union with 22 different subtypes. It is used by the "coda" network file system to pass requests between the kernel module and a user-space daemon which handles the network communication.

    It is not limpid whether these examples should live considered as the selfsame pattern as the original struct inode. achieve they really depict different subtypes of a base type, or is it just one sort with internal variants? The Eiffel object-oriented programming language does not champion variant types at any except through subtype inheritance so there is clearly a school of thought that would want to deal any usages of union as a shape of subtyping. Many other languages, such as C++, provide both inheritance and unions allowing the programmer to originate a choice. So the respond is not clear.

    For their purposes it doesn't really matter what they convene it as long as they know where to exercise each pattern. The examples in the kernel fairly clearly exhibit that when any of the variants are understood by a unique module, then a union is a very commandeer mechanism for variants structures, whether you want to refer to them as using data inheritance or not. When different subtypes are managed by different modules, or at least widely separate pieces of code, then one of the other mechanisms is preferred. The exercise of unions for this case has almost completely disappeared with only struct cycx_device remaining as an sample of a deprecated pattern.

    Problems with void pointers

    Void pointers are not quite so light to classify. It would probably live unprejudiced to protest that void pointers are the modern equivalent of "goto" statements. They can live very useful but they can too lead to very convoluted designs. A particular problem is that when you study at a void pointer, relish looking at a goto, you don't really know what it is pointing at. A void pointer called private is even worse - it is relish a "goto destination" command - almost senseless without reading lots of context.

    Examining any the different uses that void pointers can live attach to would live well beyond the scope of this article. Instead they will restrict their attention to just one unique usage which relates to data inheritance and illustrates how the untamed nature of void pointers makes it arduous to recognize their exercise in data inheritance. The sample they will exercise to clarify this usage is struct seq_file used by the seq_file library which makes it light to synthesize simple text files relish some of those in /proc. The "seq" portion of seq_file simply indicates that the file contains a sequence of lines corresponding to a sequence of items of information in the kernel, so /proc/mounts is a seq_file which walks through the mount table reporting each mount on a unique line.

    When seq_open() is used to create a unique seq_file it allocates a struct seq_file and assigns it to the private_data realm of the struct file which is being opened. This is a straightforward sample of void pointer based data inheritance where the struct file is the base sort and the struct seq_file is a simple extension to that type. It is a structure that never exists by itself but is always the private_data for some file. struct seq_file itself has a private realm which is a void pointer and it can live used by clients of seq_file to add extra condition to the file. For sample md_seq_open() allocates a struct mdstat_info structure and attaches it via this private field, using it to meet md's internal needs. Again, this is simple data inheritance following the described pattern.

    However the private realm of struct seq_file is used by svc_pool_stats_open() in a subtly but importantly different way. In this case the extra data needed is just a unique pointer. So rather than allocating a local data structure to refer to from the private field, svc_pool_stats_open simply stores that pointer directly in the private realm itself. This certainly seems relish a sensible optimization - performing an allocation to store a unique pointer would live a blow - but it highlights exactly the source of confusion that was suggested earlier: that when you study at a void pointer you don't really know what is it pointing at, or why.

    To originate it a bit clearer what is happening here, it is helpful to imagine "void *private" as being relish a union of every different workable pointer type. If the value that needs to live stored is a pointer, it can live stored in this union following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern. If the value is not a unique pointer, then it gets stored in allocated space following the "void pointers for data inheritance" pattern. Thus when they descry a void pointer being used it may not live obvious whether it is being used to point to an extension structure for data inheritance, or being used as an extension for data inheritance (or being used as something else altogether).

    To highlight this issue from a slightly different perspective it is instructive to examine struct v4l2_subdev which represents a sub-device in a video4linux device, such as a sensor or camera controller within a webcam. According to the (rather helpful) documentation it is expected that this structure will normally live embedded in a larger structure which contains extra state. However this structure quiet has not just one but two void pointers, both with names suggesting that they are for private exercise by subtypes:

    /* pointer to private data */ void *dev_priv; void *host_priv;

    It is common that a v4l sub-device (a sensor, usually) will live realized by, for example, an I2C device (much as a secrete device which stores your filesystem might live realized by an ATA or SCSI device). To allow for this common occurrence, struct v4l2_subdev provides a void pointer (dev_priv), so that the driver itself doesn't need to define a more specific pointer in the larger structure which struct v4l2_subdev would live embedded in. host_priv is intended to point back to a "parent" device such as a controller which acquires video data from the sensor. Of the three drivers which exercise this field, one appears to result that goal while the other two exercise it to point to an allocated extension structure. So both of these pointers are intended to live used following the "unions for data inheritance" pattern, where a void pointer is playing the role of a union of many other pointer types, but they are not always used that way.

    It is not immediately limpid that defining this void pointer in case it is useful is actually a valuable service to provide given that the device driver could easily enough define its own (type safe) pointer in its extension structure. What is limpid is that an apparently "private" void pointer can live intended for various qualitatively different uses and, as they fill seen in two different circumstances, they may not live used exactly as expected.

    In short, recognizing the "data inheritance through void pointers" pattern is not easy. A fairly abysmal examination of the code is needed to determine the exact purpose and usage of void pointers.

    A diversion into struct page

    Before they leave unions and void pointers behind a study at struct page may live interesting. This structure uses both of these patterns, though they are hidden reasonably due to historical baggage. This sample is particularly instructive because it is one case where struct embedding simply is not an option.

    In Linux reminiscence is divided into pages, and these pages are attach to a variety of different uses. Some are in the "page cache" used to store the contents of files. Some are "anonymous pages" holding data used by applications. Some are used as "slabs" and divided into pieces to respond kmalloc() requests. Others are simply portion of a multi-page allocation or maybe are on a free list waiting to live used. Each of these different exercise cases could live seen as a subtype of the generic class of "page", and in most cases need some dedicated fields in struct page, such as a struct address_space pointer and index when used in the page cache, or struct kmem_cache and freelist pointers when used as a slab.

    Each page always has the selfsame struct page describing it, so if the effectual sort of the page is to change - as it must as the demands for different uses of reminiscence change over time - the sort of the struct page must change within the lifetime of that structure. While many sort systems are designed assuming that the sort of an kick is immutable, they find here that the kernel has a very actual need for sort mutability. Both unions and void pointers allow types to change and as noted, struct page uses both.

    At the first plane of subtyping there are only a wee number of different subtypes as listed above; these are any known to the core reminiscence management code, so a union would live measure here. Unfortunately struct page has three unions with fields for some subtypes spread over any three, thus hiding the actual structure somewhat.

    When the primary subtype in exercise has the page being used in the page cache, the particular address_space that it belongs to may want to extend the data structure further. For this purpose there is a private realm that can live used. However it is not a void pointer but is an unsigned long. Many places in the kernel assume an unsigned long and a void * are the selfsame size and this is one of them. Most users of this realm actually store a pointer here and fill to cast it back and forth. The "buffer_head" library provides macros attach_page_buffers and page_buffers to set and gain this field.

    So while struct page is not the most elegant example, it is an informative sample of a case where unions and void pointers are the only option for providing data inheritance.

    The details of structure embedding

    Where structure embedding can live used, and where the list of workable subtypes is not known in advance, it seems to live increasingly the preferred choice. To gain a complete understanding of it they will again need to explore a petite bit further than inodes and contrast data inheritance with other uses of structure embedding.

    There are essentially three uses for structure embedding - three reasons for including a structure within another structure. Sometimes there is nothing particularly thoughtprovoking going on. Data items are collected together into structures and structures within structures simply to highlight the closeness of the relationships between the different items. In this case the address of the embedded structure is rarely taken, and it is never mapped back to the containing structure using container_of().

    The second exercise is the data inheritance embedding that they fill already discussed. The third is relish it but importantly different. This third exercise is typified by struct list_head and other structs used as an embedded anchor when creating abstract data types.

    The exercise of an embedded anchor relish struct list_head can live seen as a style of inheritance as the structure containing it "is-a" member of a list by virtue of inheriting from struct list_head. However it is not a strict subtype as a unique kick can fill several struct list_heads embedded - struct inode has six (if they involve the similar hlist_node). So it is probably best to assume of this sort of embedding more relish a "mixin" style of inheritance. The struct list_head provides a service - that of being included in a list - that can live mixed-in to other objects, an capricious number of times.

    A key aspect of data inheritance structure embedding that differentiates it from each of the other two is the existence of a reference counter in the inner-most structure. This is an observation that is tied directly to the fact that the Linux kernel uses reference counting as the primary means of lifetime management and so would not live shared by systems that used, for example, garbage collection to manage lifetimes.

    In Linux, every kick with an independent existence will fill a reference counter, sometimes a simple atomic_t or even an int, though often a more explicit struct kref. When an kick is created using several levels of inheritance the reference counter could live buried quite deeply. For sample a struct usb_device embeds a struct device which embeds struct kobject which has a struct kref. So usb_device (which might in revolve live embedded in a structure for some specific device) does fill a reference counter, but it is contained several levels down in the nest of structure embedding. This contrasts quite nicely with a list_head and similar structures. These fill no reference counter, fill no independent existence and simply provide a service to other data structures.

    Though it seems obvious when attach this way, it is useful to remember that a unique kick cannot fill two reference counters - at least not two lifetime reference counters (It is fine to fill two counters relish s_active and s_count in struct super_block which count different things). This means that multiple inheritance in the "data inheritance" style is not possible. The only shape of multiple inheritance that can travail is the mixin style used by list_head as mentioned above.

    It too means that, when designing a data structure, it is critical to assume about lifetime issues and whether this data structure should fill its own reference counter or whether it should depend on something else for its lifetime management. That is, whether it is an kick in its own right, or simply a service provided to other objects. These issues are not really unique and apply equally to void pointer inheritance. However an critical incompatibility with void pointers is that it is relatively light to change your intellect later and switch an extension structure to live a fully independent object. Structure embedding requires the discipline of thinking clearly about the problem up front and making the perquisite conclusion early - a discipline that is worth encouraging.

    The other key telltale for data inheritance structure embedding is the set of rules for allocating and initializing unique instances of a structure, as has already been hinted at. When union or void pointer inheritance is used the main structure is usually allocated and initialized by common code (the mid-layer) and then a device specific open() or create() function is called which can optionally designate and initialize any extension object. By contrast when structure embedding is used the structure needs to live allocated by the lowest plane device driver which then initializes its own fields and calls in to common code to initialize the common fields.

    Continuing the struct inode sample from above which has an alloc_inode() routine in the super_block to request allocation, they find that initialization is provided for with inode_init_once() and inode_init_always() champion functions. The first of these is used when the previous exercise of a piece of reminiscence is unknown, the second is enough by itself when they know that the reminiscence was previously used for some other inode. They descry this selfsame pattern of an initializer function separate from allocation in kobject_init(), kref_init(), and device_initialize().

    So apart from the obvious embedding of structures, the pattern of "data inheritance through structure embedding" can live recognized by the presence of a reference counter in the innermost structure, by the delegation of structure allocation to the final user of the structure, and by the provision of initializing functions which initialize a previously allocated structure.


    In exploring the exercise of routine dispatch (last week) and data inheritance (this week) in the Linux kernel they find that while some patterns look to dominate they are by no means universal. While almost any data inheritance could live implemented using structure embedding, unions provide actual value in a few specific cases. Similarly while simple vtables are common, mixin vtables are very critical and the talent to delegate methods to a related kick can live valuable.

    We too find that there are patterns in exercise with petite to recommend them. Using void pointers for inheritance may fill an initial simplicity, but causes longer term wastage, can judgement confusion, and could nearly always live replaced by embedded inheritance. Using NULL pointers to attest default behavior is similarly a impecunious option - when the default is critical there are better ways to provide for it.

    But maybe the most valuable lesson is that the Linux kernel is not only a useful program to run, it is too a useful document to study. Such study can find elegant practical solutions to actual problems, and some less elegant solutions. The willing student can pursue the former to aid help their mind, and pursue the latter to aid help the kernel itself. With that in mind, the following exercises might live of interest to some.

  • As inodes now exercise structure embedding for inheritance, void pointers should not live necessary. Examine the consequences and wisdom of removing "i_private" from "struct inode".

  • Rearrange the three unions in struct page to just one union so that the enumeration of different subtypes is more explicit.

  • As was eminent in the text, struct seq_file can live extended both through "void pointer" and a limited shape of "union" data inheritance. clarify how seq_open_private() allows this structure to too live extended through "embedded structure" data inheritance and give an sample by converting one usage in the kernel from "void pointer" to "embedded structure". esteem submitting a patch if this appears to live an improvement. Contrast this implementation of embedded structure inheritance with the mechanism used for inodes.

  • Though subtyping is widely used in the kernel, it is not uncommon for a kick to contain fields that not any users are interested in. This can attest that more fine grained subtyping is possible. As very many completely different things can live represented by a "file descriptor", it is likely that struct file could live a candidate for further subtyping.

    Identify the smallest set of fields that could serve as a generic struct file and explore the implications of embedding that in different structures to implement regular files, socket files, event files, and other file types. Exploring more generic exercise of the proposed open() routine for inodes might aid here.

  • Identify an "object-oriented" language which has an kick model that would meet any the needs of the Linux kernel as identified in these two articles.

  • (Log in to post comments)

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