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000-190 AIX Basic Operations V5

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000-190 exam Dumps Source : AIX Basic Operations V5

Test Code : 000-190
Test title : AIX Basic Operations V5
Vendor title : IBM
: 134 existent Questions

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IBM AIX Basic Operations V5

gadget core Operations manager 2007 R2 non-home windows OS aid | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

Microsoft has announced currently that it has completed the work concentrated on offering to valued clientele Cooperative Technical pilot in collaboration with Linux supplier crimson Hat. Designed to boost back alternate options for organizations operating heterogeneous IT environments, the Cooperative Technical back streamlines the consume of windows Server platforms and red Hat commerce Linux with virtualization options from each companies. in addition, Microsoft has besides labored to ensure that its IT infrastructure administration items embrace open-source software, together with Linux and UNIX operating programs, notably to support purchasers with mixed supply environments.

“Microsoft provides the methods management tools, via system seat suite, to manage actual and virtual IT programs and functions, together with non-windows utility corresponding to purple Hat commerce Linux. They execute a world-category job of managing purple Hat commerce Linux, so purchasers can consume one pane of glass to control their legacy Unix and Linux environments in conjunction with their home windows Server environments,” revealed Mike Neil, commonplace manager of windows Server and Server Virtualization.

Microsoft has tweaked Operations manager 2007 R2 with a purpose to present aid for monitoring now not just its own utility, including home windows client and server structures, but additionally operating methods from HP, sun, purple Hat, Novell and IBM. furthermore, the commerce referred to, management packs can subsist institute from numerous partners corresponding to Novell, which allow it to extend the default monitoring and management capabilities to encompass methods running MySQL, and even Apache HTTP Server.

apart from home windows environments, “device core Operations supervisor 2007 R2 supports monitoring of here operating programs: HP-UX 11i v2 and v3 (PA-RISC and IA64); sun Solaris eight and 9 (SPARC) and Solaris 10 (SPARC and x86); red Hat commercial enterprise Linux 4 (x86/x64) and 5 (x86/x64) Server; Novell SUSE Linux commercial enterprise Server 9 (x86) and 10 SP1 (x86/x64); [and]IBM AIX v5.three and v6.1 (energy),” Neil referred to.

Microsoft gadget core Operations manager 2007 R2 assessment down load is attainable here.


What to know about the IBM information Governance Catalog | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

The IBM InfoSphere suggestions Governance Catalog data governance device helps enterprises determine, shop and control IT and enterprise facts belongings which are elementary for daily operations. It provides a vital location for employees to recognize for and entry key statistics phrases and enterprise suggestions property that are up up to now and trustworthy.

The workflow-oriented data governance implement offers users a routine of edifice guidelines to decree how an commercial enterprise's facts should subsist dealt with throughout everything its channels. The tool's focal point is on supporting the enterprise groups which hold centered commonplace statistics requisites and the IT crew that as a result manages this records.

How does the application pilot facts governance tasks?

at the core of counsel Governance Catalog is its records cataloging equipment. This enables corporations to build their statistics word list the usage of points for organising properties for governance policies and rules, as well as records classes, labels, terms and linked metadata. It besides gives elements for outlining the relationships between policies and rules and classes and terms, making the administration of feeble and original facts as intuitive as feasible.

categories, labels, phrases, and governance policies and guidelines, as neatly as the basic statistics hierarchy structure, will besides subsist created and customized manually from the glossary construction characteristic. moreover, the suggestions Governance Catalog permits clients to effortlessly import present governance policies and guidelines, classes and labels the consume of its import wizard. These gadgets will besides subsist imported in comma-separated values or extensible markup language format, or pulled from compatible IBM software akin to InfoSphere commerce word list and InfoSphere Metadata Asset manager.

users need to subsist assigned a workflow and safety position before they are able to entry the catalog. This roles-primarily based entry ensures that only applicable employees can create, entry and exploit facts assets approved to them. users can subsist assigned each workflow and protection roles. Workflow roles are given to users who can subsist establishing -- and later managing -- the a number of classes and terms inside the catalog. There are four workflow roles in the utility: editor, reviewer, approver and writer. users with workflow roles are supplied access to a developmental word list that permits them to preview and edit belongings earlier than they may subsist posted. best users with particular workflow roles can create, approve, edit, evaluation and reserve up belongings institute in the thesaurus.

as soon as the glossary is operational, safety roles are given to clients who will access and interact with the facts assets inside the catalog. There are seven security roles within the utility, each and every with its personal engaging access and editing expertise: thesaurus simple consumer, consumer, thesaurus author, glossary administrator, assistance asset creator, information asset administrator and tips asset assigner. additionally, the application provides a duty for assigning facts stewards -- people or groups -- that can assist exploit statistics assets as soon as they're posted.

clients with protection roles hold access to the catalog by means of an internet browser, which enables them to attain stored statistics from anywhere they've information superhighway entry. they can besides entry lineage experiences of records that allow them to graphically identify the residence the statistics within the thesaurus originated, helping to extend self assurance within the accuracy of the statistics. The latest version of information Governance Catalog, eleven.5 RUP1, besides points features for facts classification, which helps clients determine for my piece identifiable counsel or other exquisite information across multiple facts sets. The compliance reporting duty lets organizations schedule, down load, ration and archive custom lineage studies in PDF format.

Who merits from the usage of counsel Governance Catalog?

IBM's facts governance application will besides subsist used with the aid of organizations of everything sizes to create a centralized equipment for storing and managing the data assets fundamental to creating their commerce prosper. a success facts governance involves attempting to find and gaining access to revise and professional data, however it hinges on the establishment of defined records policies, implementation instructions and common commerce vocabulary that fabricate managing the facts as effortless as viable.

How is the application licensed and priced?

information Governance Catalog is obtainable as on-premises utility with customer-server structure. It will besides subsist deployed on AIX, Linux and windows server techniques, and clients can entry the software via the Microsoft cyber web Explorer or Mozilla Firefox internet browsers. Pricing is according to a server skill-based mostly processor cost unit size. as a result, posted pricing is unavailable, and people drawn to purchasing the utility should soundless contact IBM directly. There are three versions of the software attainable:

  • InfoSphere guidance Governance Catalog, which is most desirable applicable for medium-dimension to massive organizations.
  • InfoSphere suggestions Governance Catalog Workgroup, which is restricted to a optimum of 480 PVUs and 5 approved users, making it most desirable applicable for smaller corporations.
  • InfoSphere counsel Governance Catalog for statistics Warehousing, which is priced explicitly for consume with close statistics warehousing techniques comparable to IBM Netezza, IBM simple statistics and Teradata.
  • A 12-month pilot software is covered with tips Governance Catalog. additional back may well subsist purchased from IBM. everything valid assist contracts additionally deliver access to available software enhancements throughout the condense length. No tribulation is available, but IBM will deliver agencies with proof of notion or a product demonstration before buy.


    constructing enormously-purchasable Apps With IBM Container carrier, Kubernetes, and Rancher 2.0 | killexams.com existent Questions and Pass4sure dumps

    here is the first in a four-part sequence on "constructing microservice statistics lakes with IBM Cloud." in this series, they will learn how one can consume IBM Cloud to deploy microservice applications, shop data generated by way of those microservices in IBM Cloud demur Storage, after which question across that data the usage of IBM Cloud SQL question.

    building an application within the cloud has certainly not been more convenient...or more durable...

    due to the fact that the starting of time (which in accordance with Unix is Jan 1, 1970), server-facet developers hold been attempting to find the holy grail of server-side development: a utility structure that scales infinitely, heals instantly, and is at everything times obtainable.

    today, those dreams are generally achievable through the consume of Docker containers and Kubernetes clusters. developers can create functions that work collectively as an ecosystem of microservices, which every duty a selected function. These containers may besides subsist became on and off to accommodate sudden spikes in server-aspect traffic, and original servers may besides subsist introduced immediately and simply when the present cluster runs out of resources. The containers everything hook up with each different the usage of a VPN that can span information facilities across varied regions everything over the area, and containers may besides subsist deploy to instantly delivery up on original servers when they're added.

    Of path, this everything sounds terrific, but how does a developer attracted to leveraging this technology in reality consume it?

    in this article, we'll dip their toes within the water by means of growing an IBM managed Kubernetes cluster, and select a recognize at how they will install purposes into that cluster the consume of Rancher 2.0.

    Let's Get began...

    making a Kubernetes Cluster on IBM Cloud

    constructing a extremely-obtainable Kubernetes cluster is a challenge, even with the many tools available to builders for creating them. fortunately for builders working in the IBM Cloud, the IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier provides a implement for creating a working totally-purchasable Kubernetes cluster with simply just a few clicks.

    we are going to beginning by logging into the IBM Cloud dashboard at https://console.bluemix.web the usage of your IBM Cloud account. in case you execute not already hold one, that you can register at https://ibm.com/cloud.

    you will create a brand original Kubernetes cluster by way of opening up the Catalog from the accurate navigation menu and typing kubernetes into the quest box.

    select the Containers in Kubernetes Clusters and you may subsist prompted to create your cluster. click on on the Create button to installation a original cluster.

    From the Create web page, that you can either try issues out with the Free plan, or you can spin up a production-ready cluster. From birthright here you are going to additionally opt for the statistics middle vicinity you'll dote to consume and, if you are deploying a creation-equipped cluster, how many worker nodes you'd want to have. in the event you're chuffed with the effects, give your cluster a reputation and click Create Cluster to birth the servers.

    once you click on Create Cluster, it will select just a few moments on your cluster to conclude deploying. as the cluster is deploying, you're going to subsist redirected to the cluster deployment page. The entry tab contains a set of commands so that you can consume to hold interaction with your original Kubernetes cluster. keep the guidelines on the access tab to your deployment web page to deploy the Kubernetes and IBM Cloud command line equipment that'll subsist effectual within the subsequent area, and you can consume them to test the connection to your original cluster.

    once you are in a position to receive a response from the kubectl Get nodes command, your cluster can subsist able to installation containers into.

    setting up Rancher 2.0

    Now that you hold a working Kubernetes cluster, or not it's time to beginning deploying functions into your cluster. while you may consume the kubectl command to achieve this, tools dote Rancher can fabricate managing the operations of a Kubernetes cluster lots simpler.

    Rancher itself is deployed as a Docker container. elope it through executing the following docker command:

    docker elope -d --restart=unless-stopped rancher/rancher -p 80:80 -p 443:443

    this will beginning up Rancher and allow connections on port 80 and 443 of your host laptop to hurry through to the Rancher container. once the container has begun and the services are activated, that you would subsist able to log in through navigating to https://localhost for your net browser.

    Your first order of enterprise is to create an administrative user and to supply that person a stout password.

    next, you'll need to configure the URL that different servers in your cluster will consume to entry your Rancher instance. or not it's essential that this URL is obtainable by way of everything machines in the cluster.

    when you've saved the URL, you will subsist taken to the Clusters page. Rancher lets you control dissimilar Kubernetes clusters, so this page will serve because the starting factor for everything the clusters you install and control with Rancher.

    Rancher 2.0 acts because the master of its own Kubernetes cluster, but considering the fact that they already hold a Kubernetes cluster running in IBM Cloud, let's select a glance at how they will add this present cluster to Rancher.

    Importing Your IBM Cloud Kubernetes service Cluster With Rancher

    Now that we've Rancher running and a Kubernetes cluster install in the IBM Cloud, or not it's time to "join the dots" and import their current Kubernetes setup into Rancher. From the Clusters web page, click on the Add Cluster button:

    you'll descry a couple of options for cloud providers. These alternatives back you create a original cluster at once inside the Rancher atmosphere. because they now hold already created their cluster, let's select the IMPORT alternative and convey their latest cluster into the Rancher tool. provide the cluster a memorable identify and click on on the Create button.

    Importing the cluster itself is an smooth recall of making consume of a Kubernetes configuration to your IBM Cloud Kubernetes service cluster. elope the given kubectl command to your IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier cluster the usage of the command line equipment you installed earlier.

    notice: At this stage, having an accessible installing of Rancher is vital. in case your Rancher illustration isn't obtainable from the current web, it subsist doubtless that you won't subsist in a position to import your cluster.

    you will comprehend that the configuration has been utilized effectively when the Clusters web page indicates the fitness of the nodes on your cluster.

    Now that they now hold a connection to their Kubernetes cluster, let's create their first container the consume of Rancher.

    initiatives, Namespaces, and Pods: Oh My!

    earlier than they dive too tons additional, they may soundless select a second to discourse about the primary vocabulary of Kubernetes. when you are already established with these concepts, that you can bypass ahead to the Rancher tasks section.

    Docker containers running in Kubernetes are grouped collectively the usage of just a few different layers. in this section, they will learn these groupings and the terminology we'll deserve to select into account the technique of working a container.

    Nodes

    A Node in Kubernetes is usually a lone server aid or compute unit. It represents the physical or virtual server that could subsist running everything your containers and is used to support visualize and control the resources that your whole cluster is consuming. distinctive nodes are continually elope together in a high-Availability ambiance, with grasp or API nodes featuring access and administration of distinctive worker nodes. The employee nodes consume everything of their components to elope the functions you installation into your cluster.

    Pods

    Containers are elope in a lone rational unit known as a Pod. Pods are the smallest unit of deployment and typically elope most effectual a lone container (however containers which are VERY TIGHTLY COUPLED can subsist elope within the equal pod together). Pods are used to abstract out a lone component of your software into whatever thing that will besides subsist deployed, managed, and elope within the Kubernetes cluster.

    Namespaces

    Pods which are regarding each other can subsist grouped together into Namespaces. These namespaces are more than just a rational grouping - they definitely hold an consequence on how containers are networked collectively, with containers in the equal namespace in a position to access each and every other with the aid of local title in preference to a domain name.

    capabilities

    through default, pods are remoted from every different on the network and are unable to entry each and every different. To communicate between pods, which you could create a service for that pod. capabilities expose a pod to the native network by way of a local domain title with the structure <container_name>.<namespace_name>.svc.cluster.native, and pods within the identical namespace can access every by using container identify on my own.

    Ingresses

    plenty dote services expose pods to the native community, Ingresses expose a provider to the prevalent internet. Ingresses are the entry factor of the outdoor world into the VPN that containers consume to discourse with each and every different.

    Rancher initiatives

    The terminal unit of corporation they will contend is a challenge, which isn't a piece of Kubernetes however is a feature of Rancher. Rancher projects are used to manage access to elements within Rancher, so any Kubernetes substances that you simply'd want to exploit in Rancher must subsist a piece of a mission. for instance, if you'd dote to control applications in the kube-gadget namespace, you're going to need to flow them into a project to exploit those components. that you could besides consume initiatives if in case you hold groups of builders and want to finely ply who's in a position to supplant and manage the elements for a selected undertaking.

    Deploying Your First Container With Rancher

    Now that you've got a way of the structure of applications in Rancher, it subsist time to launch your first container. we'll are looking to launch their container into a project inside their Rancher example, and a namespace inside their Kubernetes cluster. after they created their cluster in Rancher, a brand original mission known as "default" become created. Kubernetes besides has a default namespace that they can Get began with revise away. To deploy into their original namespace, select default from the cluster drop-down menu.

    this could drop you into the namespace with a number of menu options. To install their utility, we'll wish to create a workload, which is an extra identify for software. when you select your default namespace, you're going to subsist immediately dropped into the workloads tab. that you can besides click workloads to navigate to this interface.

    From birthright here, that you would subsist able to either import an existing container application the consume of a Kubernetes YAML file (by means of clicking on the Import YAML button) or consume the Rancher container deployment wizard with the aid of clicking the deploy button. Let's are attempting the latter. click on the installation button and you should soundless subsist taken to the deployment wizard.

    here, that you can adjust the settings of your workload earlier than launching it. The picture is the Docker picture that will subsist deployed (the photo will instantly subsist pulled from DockerHub if it isn't purchasable locally). there are lots of settings here that you would subsist able to adjust that are outside of the scope of this text, but for now, they will travel away this as a simple busybox deployment with a title of "examine". click the Launch button and your container can subsist deployed onto your cluster.

    once your container is launched and lively, that you would subsist able to operate moves in your container via chosen the context menu on the correct-hand side of the deployment.

    Clicking on Execute Shell will convey into a bash terminal and back you interact without delay with the container's underlying utility.

    you could additionally toggle the scaling submenu the consume of the arrow on the confiscate of your deployment, which offers alternatives for scaling up or down your deployment to varied pods and lets you monitor or ply individual pods to your deployment.

    Wrapping It Up

    in this article, they took a primary examine deploying purposes into the IBM Cloud Kubernetes service using Rancher. This may soundless tender you a distinguished foundation for getting started with working purposes in the IBM Cloud. within the subsequent articles in this sequence, they are going to select a deeper recognize at how their microservice purposes can hold interaction natively with different IBM Cloud services. they will besides find out how to install microservice applications inside their IBM Cloud Kubernetes carrier, set up a microservice carrier mesh, shop data the usage of IBM Cloud demur Storage, question that facts using IBM Cloud SQL question, execute IBM Cloud services from their Kubernetes functions, and attach everything of the pieces together seamlessly the usage of Kubernetes-native services.


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    AIX Basic Operations V5

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    GSSAPI Authentication and Kerberos v5 | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    This chapter is from the reserve 

    This section discusses the GSSAPI mechanism, in particular, Kerberos v5 and how this works in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software and what is involved in implementing such a solution. tickle subsist awake that this is not a trifling task.

    It’s worth taking a brief recognize at the relationship between the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) and Kerberos v5.

    The GSSAPI does not actually provide security services itself. Rather, it is a framework that provides security services to callers in a generic fashion, with a purview of underlying mechanisms and technologies such as Kerberos v5. The current implementation of the GSSAPI only works with the Kerberos v5 security mechanism. The best way to mediate about the relationship between GSSAPI and Kerberos is in the following manner: GSSAPI is a network authentication protocol abstraction that allows Kerberos credentials to subsist used in an authentication exchange. Kerberos v5 must subsist installed and running on any system on which GSSAPI-aware programs are running.

    The support for the GSSAPI is made workable in the directory server through the introduction of a original SASL library, which is based on the Cyrus CMU implementation. Through this SASL framework, DIGEST-MD5 is supported as explained previously, and GSSAPI which implements Kerberos v5. Additional GSSAPI mechanisms execute exist. For example, GSSAPI with SPNEGO support would subsist GSS-SPNEGO. Other GSS mechanism names are based on the GSS mechanisms OID.

    The Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software only supports the consume of GSSAPI on Solaris OE. There are implementations of GSSAPI for other operating systems (for example, Linux), but the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software does not consume them on platforms other than the Solaris OE.

    Understanding GSSAPI

    The Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI) is a criterion interface, defined by RFC 2743, that provides a generic authentication and secure messaging interface, whereby these security mechanisms can subsist plugged in. The most commonly referred to GSSAPI mechanism is the Kerberos mechanism that is based on secret key cryptography.

    One of the main aspects of GSSAPI is that it allows developers to add secure authentication and privacy (encryption and or integrity checking) protection to data being passed over the wire by writing to a lone programming interface. This is shown in device 3-2.

    03fig02.gifFigure 3-2. GSSAPI Layers

    The underlying security mechanisms are loaded at the time the programs are executed, as opposed to when they are compiled and built. In practice, the most commonly used GSSAPI mechanism is Kerberos v5. The Solaris OE provides a few different flavors of Diffie-Hellman GSSAPI mechanisms, which are only useful to NIS+ applications.

    What can subsist confusing is that developers might write applications that write directly to the Kerberos API, or they might write GSSAPI applications that request the Kerberos mechanism. There is a colossal difference, and applications that talk Kerberos directly cannot communicate with those that talk GSSAPI. The wire protocols are not compatible, even though the underlying Kerberos protocol is in use. An illustration is telnet with Kerberos is a secure telnet program that authenticates a telnet user and encrypts data, including passwords exchanged over the network during the telnet session. The authentication and message protection features are provided using Kerberos. The telnet application with Kerberos only uses Kerberos, which is based on secret-key technology. However, a telnet program written to the GSSAPI interface can consume Kerberos as well as other security mechanisms supported by GSSAPI.

    The Solaris OE does not deliver any libraries that provide support for third-party companies to program directly to the Kerberos API. The goal is to animate developers to consume the GSSAPI. Many open-source Kerberos implementations (MIT, Heimdal) allow users to write Kerberos applications directly.

    On the wire, the GSSAPI is compatible with Microsoft’s SSPI and thus GSSAPI applications can communicate with Microsoft applications that consume SSPI and Kerberos.

    The GSSAPI is preferred because it is a standardized API, whereas Kerberos is not. This means that the MIT Kerberos progress team might change the programming interface anytime, and any applications that exist today might not work in the future without some code modifications. Using GSSAPI avoids this problem.

    Another capitalize of GSSAPI is its pluggable feature, which is a colossal benefit, especially if a developer later decides that there is a better authentication routine than Kerberos, because it can easily subsist plugged into the system and the existing GSSAPI applications should subsist able to consume it without being recompiled or patched in any way.

    Understanding Kerberos v5

    Kerberos is a network authentication protocol designed to provide stout authentication for client/server applications by using secret-key cryptography. Originally developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it is included in the Solaris OE to provide stout authentication for Solaris OE network applications.

    In addition to providing a secure authentication protocol, Kerberos besides offers the aptitude to add privacy support (encrypted data streams) for remote applications such as telnet, ftp, rsh, rlogin, and other common UNIX network applications. In the Solaris OE, Kerberos can besides subsist used to provide stout authentication and privacy support for Network File Systems (NFS), allowing secure and private file sharing across the network.

    Because of its widespread acceptance and implementation in other operating systems, including Windows 2000, HP-UX, and Linux, the Kerberos authentication protocol can interoperate in a heterogeneous environment, allowing users on machines running one OS to securely authenticate themselves on hosts of a different OS.

    The Kerberos software is available for Solaris OE versions 2.6, 7, 8, and 9 in a sever package called the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) software. For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is included as piece of the Solaris smooth Access Server 3.0 (Solaris SEAS) package. For Solaris 8 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software package is available with the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack.

    For Solaris 2.6 and Solaris 7 OE, the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is freely available as piece of the Solaris smooth Access Server 3.0 package available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/7/ds/ds-seas.

    For Solaris 8 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is available in the Solaris 8 OE Admin Pack, available for download from:

    http://www.sun.com/bigadmin/content/adminPack/index.html.

    For Solaris 9 OE systems, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software is already installed by default and contains the following packages listed in TABLE 3-1.

    Table 3-1. Solaris 9 OE Kerberos v5 Packages

    Package Name

    Description

    SUNWkdcr

    Kerberos v5 KDC (root)

    SUNWkdcu

    Kerberos v5 Master KDC (user)

    SUNWkrbr

    Kerberos version 5 support (Root)

    SUNWkrbu

    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr)

    SUNWkrbux

    Kerberos version 5 support (Usr) (64-bit)

    All of these Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software distributions are based on the MIT KRB5 Release version 1.0. The client programs in these distributions are compatible with later MIT releases (1.1, 1.2) and with other implementations that are compliant with the standard.

    How Kerberos Works

    The following is an overview of the Kerberos v5 authentication system. From the user’s standpoint, Kerberos v5 is mostly invisible after the Kerberos session has been started. Initializing a Kerberos session often involves no more than logging in and providing a Kerberos password.

    The Kerberos system revolves around the concept of a ticket. A ticket is a set of electronic information that serves as identification for a user or a service such as the NFS service. Just as your driver’s license identifies you and indicates what driving permissions you have, so a ticket identifies you and your network access privileges. When you accomplish a Kerberos-based transaction (for example, if you consume rlogin to log in to another machine), your system transparently sends a request for a ticket to a Key Distribution Center, or KDC. The KDC accesses a database to authenticate your identity and returns a ticket that grants you authorization to access the other machine. Transparently means that you execute not need to explicitly request a ticket.

    Tickets hold inescapable attributes associated with them. For example, a ticket can subsist forwardable (which means that it can subsist used on another machine without a original authentication process), or postdated (not valid until a specified time). How tickets are used (for example, which users are allowed to obtain which types of tickets) is set by policies that are determined when Kerberos is installed or administered.

    You will frequently descry the terms credential and ticket. In the Kerberos world, they are often used interchangeably. Technically, however, a credential is a ticket plus the session key for that session.

    Initial Authentication

    Kerberos authentication has two phases, an initial authentication that allows for everything subsequent authentications, and the subsequent authentications themselves.

    A client (a user, or a service such as NFS) begins a Kerberos session by requesting a ticket-granting ticket (TGT) from the Key Distribution seat (KDC). This request is often done automatically at login.

    A ticket-granting ticket is needed to obtain other tickets for specific services. mediate of the ticket-granting ticket as something similar to a passport. dote a passport, the ticket-granting ticket identifies you and allows you to obtain numerous “visas,” where the “visas” (tickets) are not for exotic countries, but for remote machines or network services. dote passports and visas, the ticket-granting ticket and the other various tickets hold limited lifetimes. The dissimilarity is that Kerberized commands notice that you hold a passport and obtain the visas for you. You don’t hold to accomplish the transactions yourself.

    The KDC creates a ticket-granting ticket and sends it back, in encrypted form, to the client. The client decrypts the ticket-granting ticket using the client’s password.

    Now in possession of a valid ticket-granting ticket, the client can request tickets for everything sorts of network operations for as long as the ticket-granting ticket lasts. This ticket usually lasts for a few hours. Each time the client performs a unique network operation, it requests a ticket for that operation from the KDC.

    Subsequent Authentications

    The client requests a ticket for a particular service from the KDC by sending the KDC its ticket-granting ticket as proof of identity.

  • The KDC sends the ticket for the specific service to the client.

    For example, suppose user lucy wants to access an NFS file system that has been shared with krb5 authentication required. Since she is already authenticated (that is, she already has a ticket-granting ticket), as she attempts to access the files, the NFS client system automatically and transparently obtains a ticket from the KDC for the NFS service.

  • The client sends the ticket to the server.

    When using the NFS service, the NFS client automatically and transparently sends the ticket for the NFS service to the NFS server.

  • The server allows the client access.

    These steps fabricate it issue that the server doesn’t ever communicate with the KDC. The server does, though, as it registers itself with the KDC, just as the first client does.

  • Principals

    A client is identified by its principal. A principal is a unique identity to which the KDC can assign tickets. A principal can subsist a user, such as joe, or a service, such as NFS.

    By convention, a principal title is divided into three parts: the primary, the instance, and the realm. A typical principal could be, for example, lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM, where:

    lucy is the primary. The primary can subsist a user name, as shown here, or a service, such as NFS. The primary can besides subsist the word host, which signifies that this principal is a service principal that is set up to provide various network services.

    admin is the instance. An instance is optional in the case of user principals, but it is required for service principals. For example, if the user lucy sometimes acts as a system administrator, she can consume lucy/admin to distinguish herself from her habitual user identity. Likewise, if Lucy has accounts on two different hosts, she can consume two principal names with different instances (for example, lucy/california.example.com and lucy/boston.example.com).

    Realms

    A realm is a rational network, similar to a domain, which defines a group of systems under the identical master KDC. Some realms are hierarchical (one realm being a superset of the other realm). Otherwise, the realms are non-hierarchical (or direct) and the mapping between the two realms must subsist defined.

    Realms and KDC Servers

    Each realm must include a server that maintains the master copy of the principal database. This server is called the master KDC server. Additionally, each realm should contain at least one slave KDC server, which contains duplicate copies of the principal database. Both the master KDC server and the slave KDC server create tickets that are used to establish authentication.

    Understanding the Kerberos KDC

    The Kerberos Key Distribution seat (KDC) is a trusted server that issues Kerberos tickets to clients and servers to communicate securely. A Kerberos ticket is a screen of data that is presented as the user’s credentials when attempting to access a Kerberized service. A ticket contains information about the user’s identity and a temporary encryption key, everything encrypted in the server’s private key. In the Kerberos environment, any entity that is defined to hold a Kerberos identity is referred to as a principal.

    A principal may subsist an entry for a particular user, host, or service (such as NFS or FTP) that is to interact with the KDC. Most commonly, the KDC server system besides runs the Kerberos Administration Daemon, which handles administrative commands such as adding, deleting, and modifying principals in the Kerberos database. Typically, the KDC, the admin server, and the database are everything on the identical machine, but they can subsist separated if necessary. Some environments may require that multiple realms subsist configured with master KDCs and slave KDCs for each realm. The principals applied for securing each realm and KDC should subsist applied to everything realms and KDCs in the network to ensure that there isn’t a lone fragile link in the chain.

    One of the first steps to select when initializing your Kerberos database is to create it using the kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin. When running this command, the user has the selection of whether to create a stash file or not. The stash file is a local copy of the master key that resides on the KDC’s local disk. The master key contained in the stash file is generated from the master password that the user enters when first creating the KDC database. The stash file is used to authenticate the KDC to itself automatically before starting the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons (for example, as piece of the machine’s boot sequence).

    If a stash file is not used when the database is created, the administrator who starts up the krb5kdc process will hold to manually enter the master key (password) every time they start the process. This may look dote a typical trade off between convenience and security, but if the repose of the system is sufficiently hardened and protected, very itsy-bitsy security is lost by having the master key stored in the protected stash file. It is recommended that at least one slave KDC server subsist installed for each realm to ensure that a backup is available in the event that the master server becomes unavailable, and that slave KDC subsist configured with the identical smooth of security as the master.

    Currently, the Sun Kerberos v5 Mechanism utility, kdb5_util, can create three types of keys, DES-CBC-CRC, DES-CBC-MD5, and DES-CBC-RAW. DES-CBC stands for DES encryption with Cipher screen Chaining and the CRC, MD5, and RAW designators refer to the checksum algorithm that is used. By default, the key created will subsist DES-CBC-CRC, which is the default encryption character for the KDC. The character of key created is specified on the command line with the -k option (see the kdb5_util (1M) man page). choose the password for your stash file very carefully, because this password can subsist used in the future to decrypt the master key and modify the database. The password may subsist up to 1024 characters long and can include any combination of letters, numbers, punctuation, and spaces.

    The following is an illustration of creating a stash file:

    kdc1 #/usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key title 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is vital that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: master_key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: master_key

    Notice the consume of the -s argument to create the stash file. The location of the stash file is in the /var/krb5. The stash file appears with the following mode and ownership settings:

    kdc1 # cd /var/krb5 kdc1 # ls -l -rw------- 1 root other 14 Apr 10 14:28 .k5.EXAMPLE.COM

    The directory used to store the stash file and the database should not subsist shared or exported.

    Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File

    The KDC and Administration daemons both read configuration information from /etc/krb5/kdc.conf. This file contains KDC-specific parameters that govern overall conduct for the KDC and for specific realms. The parameters in the kdc.conf file are explained in detail in the kdc.conf(4) man page.

    The kdc.conf parameters relate locations of various files and ports to consume for accessing the KDC and the administration daemon. These parameters generally execute not need to subsist changed, and doing so does not result in any added security. However, there are some parameters that may subsist adjusted to enhance the overall security of the KDC. The following are some examples of adjustable parameters that enhance security.

  • kdc_ports – Defines the ports that the KDC will listen on to receive requests. The criterion port for Kerberos v5 is 88. 750 is included and commonly used to support older clients that soundless consume the default port designated for Kerberos v4. Solaris OE soundless listens on port 750 for backwards compatibility. This is not considered a security risk.

  • max_life – Defines the maximum lifetime of a ticket, and defaults to eight hours. In environments where it is desirable to hold users re-authenticate frequently and to reduce the casual of having a principal’s credentials stolen, this value should subsist lowered. The recommended value is eight hours.

  • max_renewable_life – Defines the era of time from when a ticket is issued that it may subsist renewed (using kinit -R). The criterion value here is 7 days. To disable renewable tickets, this value may subsist set to 0 days, 0 hrs, 0 min. The recommended value is 7d 0h 0m 0s.

  • default_principal_expiration – A Kerberos principal is any unique identity to which Kerberos can assign a ticket. In the case of users, it is the identical as the UNIX system user name. The default lifetime of any principal in the realm may subsist defined in the kdc.conf file with this option. This should subsist used only if the realm will contain temporary principals, otherwise the administrator will hold to constantly subsist renewing principals. Usually, this setting is left undefined and principals execute not expire. This is not insecure as long as the administrator is vigilant about removing principals for users that no longer need access to the systems.

  • supported_enctypes – The encryption types supported by the KDC may subsist defined with this option. At this time, Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software only supports des-cbc-crc:normal encryption type, but in the future this may subsist used to ensure that only stout cryptographic ciphers are used.

  • dict_file – The location of a dictionary file containing strings that are not allowed as passwords. A principal with any password policy (see below) will not subsist able to consume words institute in this dictionary file. This is not defined by default. Using a dictionary file is a respectable way to preclude users from creating trifling passwords to protect their accounts, and thus helps avoid one of the most common weaknesses in a computer network-guessable passwords. The KDC will only check passwords against the dictionary for principals which hold a password policy association, so it is respectable exercise to hold at least one simple policy associated with everything principals in the realm.

  • The Solaris OE has a default system dictionary that is used by the spell program that may besides subsist used by the KDC as a dictionary of common passwords. The location of this file is: /usr/share/lib/dict/words. Other dictionaries may subsist substituted. The format is one word or phrase per line.

    The following is a Kerberos v5 /etc/krb5/kdc.conf illustration with suggested settings:

    # Copyright 1998-2002 Sun Microsystems, Inc. everything rights reserved. # consume is topic to license terms. # #ident "@(#)kdc.conf 1.2 02/02/14 SMI" [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] ___default_realm___ = { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s default_principal_flags = +preauth Needs poignant -- dict_file = /usr/share/lib/dict/words } Access Control

    The Kerberos administration server allows for granular control of the administrative commands by consume of an access control list (ACL) file (/etc/krb5/kadm5.acl). The syntax for the ACL file allows for wildcarding of principal names so it is not necessary to list every lone administrator in the ACL file. This feature should subsist used with distinguished care. The ACLs used by Kerberos allow privileges to subsist broken down into very precise functions that each administrator can perform. If a inescapable administrator only needs to subsist allowed to hold read-access to the database then that person should not subsist granted replete admin privileges. Below is a list of the privileges allowed:

  • a – Allows the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • A – Prohibits the addition of principals or policies in the database.

  • d – Allows the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • D – Prohibits the deletion of principals or policies in the database.

  • m – Allows the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • M – Prohibits the modification of principals or policies in the database.

  • c – Allows the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • C – Prohibits the changing of passwords for principals in the database.

  • i – Allows inquiries to the database.

  • I – Prohibits inquiries to the database.

  • l – Allows the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • L – Prohibits the listing of principals or policies in the database.

  • * – Short for everything privileges (admcil).

  • x – Short for everything privileges (admcil). Identical to *.

  • Adding Administrators

    After the ACLs are set up, actual administrator principals should subsist added to the system. It is strongly recommended that administrative users hold sever /admin principals to consume only when administering the system. For example, user Lucy would hold two principals in the database - lucy@REALM and lucy/admin@REALM. The /admin principal would only subsist used when administering the system, not for getting ticket-granting-tickets (TGTs) to access remote services. Using the /admin principal only for administrative purposes minimizes the casual of someone walking up to Joe’s unattended terminal and performing unauthorized administrative commands on the KDC.

    Kerberos principals may subsist differentiated by the instance piece of their principal name. In the case of user principals, the most common instance identifier is /admin. It is criterion exercise in Kerberos to differentiate user principals by defining some to subsist /admin instances and others to hold no specific instance identifier (for example, lucy/admin@REALM versus lucy@REALM). Principals with the /admin instance identifier are assumed to hold administrative privileges defined in the ACL file and should only subsist used for administrative purposes. A principal with an /admin identifier which does not match up with any entries in the ACL file will not subsist granted any administrative privileges, it will subsist treated as a non-privileged user principal. Also, user principals with the /admin identifier are given sever passwords and sever permissions from the non-admin principal for the identical user.

    The following is a sample /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file:

    # Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. # everything rights reserved. # #pragma ident "@(#)kadm5.acl 1.1 01/03/19 SMI" # lucy/admin is given replete administrative privilege lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM * # # tom/admin user is allowed to query the database (d), listing principals # (l), and changing user passwords (c) # tom/admin@EXAMPLE.COM dlc

    It is highly recommended that the kadm5.acl file subsist tightly controlled and that users subsist granted only the privileges they need to accomplish their assigned tasks.

    Creating Host Keys

    Creating host keys for systems in the realm such as slave KDCs is performed the identical way that creating user principals is performed. However, the -randkey option should always subsist used, so no one ever knows the actual key for the hosts. Host principals are almost always stored in the keytab file, to subsist used by root-owned processes that wish to act as Kerberos services for the local host. It is rarely necessary for anyone to actually know the password for a host principal because the key is stored safely in the keytab and is only accessible by root-owned processes, never by actual users.

    When creating keytab files, the keys should always subsist extracted from the KDC on the identical machine where the keytab is to reside using the ktadd command from a kadmin session. If this is not feasible, select distinguished charge in transferring the keytab file from one machine to the next. A malicious attacker who possesses the contents of the keytab file could consume these keys from the file in order to gain access to another user or services credentials. Having the keys would then allow the attacker to impersonate whatever principal that the key represented and further compromise the security of that Kerberos realm. Some suggestions for transferring the keytab are to consume Kerberized, encrypted ftp transfers, or to consume the secure file transfer programs scp or sftp offered with the SSH package (http://www.openssh.org). Another safe routine is to residence the keytab on a removable disk, and hand-deliver it to the destination.

    Hand delivery does not scale well for large installations, so using the Kerberized ftp daemon is perhaps the most convenient and secure routine available.

    Using NTP to Synchronize Clocks

    All servers participating in the Kerberos realm need to hold their system clocks synchronized to within a configurable time restrict (default 300 seconds). The safest, most secure way to systematically synchronize the clocks on a network of Kerberos servers is by using the Network Time Protocol (NTP) service. The Solaris OE comes with an NTP client and NTP server software (SUNWntpu package). descry the ntpdate(1M) and xntpd(1M) man pages for more information on the individual commands. For more information on configuring NTP, refer to the following Sun BluePrints OnLine NTP articles:

    It is captious that the time subsist synchronized in a secure manner. A simple denial of service storm on either a client or a server would involve just skewing the time on that system to subsist outside of the configured clock skew value, which would then preclude anyone from acquiring TGTs from that system or accessing Kerberized services on that system. The default clock-skew value of five minutes is the maximum recommended value.

    The NTP infrastructure must besides subsist secured, including the consume of server hardening for the NTP server and application of NTP security features. Using the Solaris Security Toolkit software (formerly known as JASS) with the secure.driver script to create a minimal system and then installing just the necessary NTP software is one such method. The Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/jass/

    Documentation on the Solaris Security Toolkit software is available at:

    http://www.sun.com/security/blueprints

    Establishing Password Policies

    Kerberos allows the administrator to define password policies that can subsist applied to some or everything of the user principals in the realm. A password policy contains definitions for the following parameters:

  • Minimum Password Length – The number of characters in the password, for which the recommended value is 8.

  • Maximum Password Classes – The number of different character classes that must subsist used to fabricate up the password. Letters, numbers, and punctuation are the three classes and valid values are 1, 2, and 3. The recommended value is 2.

  • Saved Password History – The number of previous passwords that hold been used by the principal that cannot subsist reused. The recommended value is 3.

  • Minimum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The minimum time that the password must subsist used before it can subsist changed. The recommended value is 3600 (1 hour).

  • Maximum Password Lifetime (seconds) – The maximum time that the password can subsist used before it must subsist changed. The recommended value is 7776000 (90 days).

  • These values can subsist set as a group and stored as a lone policy. Different policies can subsist defined for different principals. It is recommended that the minimum password length subsist set to at least 8 and that at least 2 classes subsist required. Most people mind to choose easy-to-remember and easy-to-type passwords, so it is a respectable notion to at least set up policies to animate slightly more difficult-to-guess passwords through the consume of these parameters. Setting the Maximum Password Lifetime value may subsist helpful in some environments, to constrain people to change their passwords periodically. The era is up to the local administrator according to the overriding corporate security policy used at that particular site. Setting the Saved Password History value combined with the Minimum Password Lifetime value prevents people from simply switching their password several times until they Get back to their original or favorite password.

    The maximum password length supported is 255 characters, unlike the UNIX password database which only supports up to 8 characters. Passwords are stored in the KDC encrypted database using the KDC default encryption method, DES-CBC-CRC. In order to preclude password guessing attacks, it is recommended that users choose long passwords or pass phrases. The 255 character restrict allows one to choose a petite sentence or smooth to recall phrase instead of a simple one-word password.

    It is workable to consume a dictionary file that can subsist used to preclude users from choosing common, easy-to-guess words (see “Secure Settings in the KDC Configuration File” on page 70). The dictionary file is only used when a principal has a policy association, so it is highly recommended that at least one policy subsist in consequence for everything principals in the realm.

    The following is an illustration password policy creation:

    If you specify a kadmin command without specifying any options, kadmin displays the syntax (usage information) for that command. The following code box shows this, followed by an actual add_policy command with options.

    kadmin: add_policy usage: add_policy [options] policy options are: [-maxlife time] [-minlife time] [-minlength length] [-minclasses number] [-history number] kadmin: add_policy -minlife "1 hour" -maxlife "90 days" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 passpolicy kadmin: get_policy passpolicy Policy: passpolicy Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of feeble keys kept: 3 Reference count: 0

    This illustration creates a password policy called passpolicy which enforces a maximum password lifetime of 90 days, minimum length of 8 characters, a minimum of 2 different character classes (letters, numbers, punctuation), and a password history of 3.

    To apply this policy to an existing user, modify the following:

    kadmin: modprinc -policy passpolicy lucyPrincipal "lucy@EXAMPLE.COM" modified.

    To modify the default policy that is applied to everything user principals in a realm, change the following:

    kadmin: modify_policy -maxlife "90 days" -minlife "1 hour" -minlength 8 -minclasses 2 -history 3 default kadmin: get_policy default Policy: default Maximum password life: 7776000 Minimum password life: 3600 Minimum password length: 8 Minimum number of password character classes: 2 Number of feeble keys kept: 3 Reference count: 1

    The Reference weigh value indicates how many principals are configured to consume the policy.

    The default policy is automatically applied to everything original principals that are not given the identical password as the principal title when they are created. Any account with a policy assigned to it is uses the dictionary (defined in the dict_file parameter in /etc/krb5/kdc.conf) to check for common passwords.

    Backing Up a KDC

    Backups of a KDC system should subsist made regularly or according to local policy. However, backups should exclude the /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab file. If the local policy requires that backups subsist done over a network, then these backups should subsist secured either through the consume of encryption or possibly by using a sever network interface that is only used for backup purposes and is not exposed to the identical traffic as the non-backup network traffic. Backup storage media should always subsist kept in a secure, fireproof location.

    Monitoring the KDC

    Once the KDC is configured and running, it should subsist continually and vigilantly monitored. The Sun Kerberos v5 software KDC logs information into the /var/krb5/kdc.log file, but this location can subsist modified in the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file, in the logging section.

    [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log

    The KDC log file should hold read and write permissions for the root user only, as follows:

    -rw------ 1 root other 750 25 May 10 17:55 /var/krb5/kdc.log Kerberos Options

    The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file contains information that everything Kerberos applications consume to determine what server to talk to and what realm they are participating in. Configuring the krb5.conf file is covered in the Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism Software Installation Guide. besides refer to the krb5.conf(4) man page for a replete description of this file.

    The appdefaults section in the krb5.conf file contains parameters that control the conduct of many Kerberos client tools. Each implement may hold its own section in the appdefaults section of the krb5.conf file.

    Many of the applications that consume the appdefaults section, consume the identical options; however, they might subsist set in different ways for each client application.

    Kerberos Client Applications

    The following Kerberos applications can hold their conduct modified through the user of options set in the appdefaults section of the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file or by using various command-line arguments. These clients and their configuration settings are described below.

    kinit

    The kinit client is used by people who want to obtain a TGT from the KDC. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following kinit options: renewable, forwardable, no_addresses, max_life, max_renewable_life and proxiable.

    telnet

    The Kerberos telnet client has many command-line arguments that control its behavior. refer to the man page for complete information. However, there are several engaging security issues involving the Kerberized telnet client.

    The telnet client uses a session key even after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. This means that the telnet session remains active even after the ticket originally used to gain access, is no longer valid. This is insecure in a strict environment, however, the trade off between ease of consume and strict security tends to gaunt in favor of ease-of-use in this situation. It is recommended that the telnet connection subsist re-initialized periodically by disconnecting and reconnecting with a original ticket. The overall lifetime of a ticket is defined by the KDC (/etc/krb5/kdc.conf), normally defined as eight hours.

    The telnet client allows the user to forward a copy of the credentials (TGT) used to authenticate to the remote system using the -f and -F command-line options. The -f option sends a non-forwardable copy of the local TGT to the remote system so that the user can access Kerberized NFS mounts or other local Kerberized services on that system only. The -F option sends a forwardable TGT to the remote system so that the TGT can subsist used from the remote system to gain further access to other remote Kerberos services beyond that point. The -F option is a superset of -f. If the Forwardable and or forward options are set to deceptive in the krb5.conf file, these command-line arguments can subsist used to override those settings, thus giving individuals the control over whether and how their credentials are forwarded.

    The -x option should subsist used to turn on encryption for the data stream. This further protects the session from eavesdroppers. If the telnet server does not support encryption, the session is closed. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following telnet options: forward, forwardable, encrypt, and autologin. The autologin [true/false] parameter tells the client to try and attempt to log in without prompting the user for a user name. The local user title is passed on to the remote system in the telnet negotiations.

    rlogin and rsh

    The Kerberos rlogin and rsh clients behave much the identical as their non-Kerberized equivalents. Because of this, it is recommended that if they are required to subsist included in the network files such as /etc/hosts.equiv and .rhosts that the root users directory subsist removed. The Kerberized versions hold the added capitalize of using Kerberos protocol for authentication and can besides consume Kerberos to protect the privacy of the session using encryption.

    Similar to telnet described previously, the rlogin and rsh clients consume a session key after the service ticket which it was derived from has expired. Thus, for maximum security, rlogin and rsh sessions should subsist re-initialized periodically. rlogin uses the -f, -F, and -x options in the identical fashion as the telnet client. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the following rlogin options: forward, forwardable, and encrypt.

    Command-line options override configuration file settings. For example, if the rsh section in the krb5.conf file indicates encrypt false, but the -x option is used on the command line, an encrypted session is used.

    rcp

    Kerberized rcp can subsist used to transfer files securely between systems using Kerberos authentication and encryption (with the -x command-line option). It does not prompt for passwords, the user must already hold a valid TGT before using rcp if they wish to consume the encryption feature. However, beware if the -x option is not used and no local credentials are available, the rcp session will revert to the standard, non-Kerberized (and insecure) rcp behavior. It is highly recommended that users always consume the -x option when using the Kerberized rcp client.The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the encrypt [true/false] option.

    login

    The Kerberos login program (login.krb5) is forked from a successful authentication by the Kerberized telnet daemon or the Kerberized rlogin daemon. This Kerberos login daemon is sever from the criterion Solaris OE login daemon and thus, the criterion Solaris OE features such as BSM auditing are not yet supported when using this daemon. The /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file supports the krb5_get_tickets [true/false] option. If this option is set to true, then the login program will generate a original Kerberos ticket (TGT) for the user upon proper authentication.

    ftp

    The Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism (SEAM) version of the ftp client uses the GSSAPI (RFC 2743) with Kerberos v5 as the default mechanism. This means that it uses Kerberos authentication and (optionally) encryption through the Kerberos v5 GSS mechanism. The only Kerberos-related command-line options are -f and -m. The -f option is the identical as described above for telnet (there is no need for a -F option). -m allows the user to specify an alternative GSS mechanism if so desired, the default is to consume the kerberos_v5 mechanism.

    The protection smooth used for the data transfer can subsist set using the protect command at the ftp prompt. Sun Enterprise Authentication Mechanism software ftp supports the following protection levels:

  • Clear unprotected, unencrypted transmission

  • Safe data is integrity protected using cryptographic checksums

  • Private data is transmitted with confidentiality and integrity using encryption

  • It is recommended that users set the protection smooth to private for everything data transfers. The ftp client program does not support or reference the krb5.conf file to find any optional parameters. everything ftp client options are passed on the command line. descry the man page for the Kerberized ftp client, ftp(1).

    In summary, adding Kerberos to a network can extend the overall security available to the users and administrators of that network. Remote sessions can subsist securely authenticated and encrypted, and shared disks can subsist secured and encrypted across the network. In addition, Kerberos allows the database of user and service principals to subsist managed securely from any machine which supports the SEAM software Kerberos protocol. SEAM is interoperable with other RFC 1510 compliant Kerberos implementations such as MIT Krb5 and some MS Windows 2000 active Directory services. Adopting the practices recommended in this section further secure the SEAM software infrastructure to back ensure a safer network environment.

    Implementing the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Software and the GSSAPI Mechanism

    This section provides a high-level overview, followed by the in-depth procedures that relate the setup necessary to implement the GSSAPI mechanism and the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software. This implementation assumes a realm of EXAMPLE.COM for this purpose. The following list gives an initial high-level overview of the steps required, with the next section providing the minute information.

  • Setup DNS on the client machine. This is an vital step because Kerberos requires DNS.

  • Install and configure the Sun ONE Directory Server version 5.2 software.

  • Check that the directory server and client both hold the SASL plug-ins installed.

  • Install and configure Kerberos v5.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/krb5.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kdc.conf file.

  • Edit the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file.

  • Move the kerberos_v5 line so it is the first line in the /etc/gss/mech file.

  • Create original principals using kadmin.local, which is an interactive commandline interface to the Kerberos v5 administration system.

  • Modify the rights for /etc/krb5/krb5.keytab. This access is necessary for the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

  • Run /usr/sbin/kinit.

  • Check that you hold a ticket with /usr/bin/klist.

  • Perform an ldapsearch, using the ldapsearch command-line implement from the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software to test and verify.

  • The sections that succeed fill in the details.

    Configuring a DNS Client

    To subsist a DNS client, a machine must elope the resolver. The resolver is neither a daemon nor a lone program. It is a set of dynamic library routines used by applications that need to know machine names. The resolver’s duty is to resolve users’ queries. To execute that, it queries a title server, which then returns either the requested information or a referral to another server. Once the resolver is configured, a machine can request DNS service from a title server.

    The following illustration shows you how to configure the resolv.conf(4) file in the server kdc1 in the example.com domain.

    ; ; /etc/resolv.conf file for dnsmaster ; domain example.com nameserver 192.168.0.0 nameserver 192.168.0.1

    The first line of the /etc/resolv.conf file lists the domain title in the form:

    domain domainname

    No spaces or tabs are permitted at the cessation of the domain name. fabricate certain that you press revert immediately after the terminal character of the domain name.

    The second line identifies the server itself in the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    Succeeding lines list the IP addresses of one or two slave or cache-only title servers that the resolver should consult to resolve queries. title server entries hold the form:

    nameserver IP_address

    IP_address is the IP address of a slave or cache-only DNS title server. The resolver queries these title servers in the order they are listed until it obtains the information it needs.

    For more minute information of what the resolv.conf file does, refer to the resolv.conf(4) man page.

    To Configure Kerberos v5 (Master KDC)

    In the this procedure, the following configuration parameters are used:

  • Realm title = EXAMPLE.COM

  • DNS domain title = example.com

  • Master KDC = kdc1.example.com

  • admin principal = lucy/admin

  • Online back URL = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956

  • This procedure requires that DNS is running.

    Before you originate this configuration process, fabricate a backup of the /etc/krb5 files.

  • Become superuser on the master KDC. (kdc1, in this example)

  • Edit the Kerberos configuration file (krb5.conf).

    You need to change the realm names and the names of the servers. descry the krb5.conf(4) man page for a replete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/krb5.conf [libdefaults] default_realm = EXAMPLE.COM [realms] EXAMPLE.COM = { kdc = kdc1.example.com admin server = kdc1.example.com } [domain_realm] .example.com = EXAMPLE.COM [logging] default = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log kdc = FILE:/var/krb5/kdc.log [appdefaults] gkadmin = { help_url = http://example:8888/ab2/coll.384.1/SEAM/@AB2PageView/6956 }

    In this example, the lines for domain_realm, kdc, admin_server, and everything domain_realm entries were changed. In addition, the line with ___slave_kdcs___ in the [realms] section was deleted and the line that defines the help_url was edited.

  • Edit the KDC configuration file (kdc.conf).

    You must change the realm name. descry the kdc.conf( 4) man page for a replete description of this file.

    kdc1 # more /etc/krb5/kdc.conf [kdcdefaults] kdc_ports = 88,750 [realms] EXAMPLE.COM= { profile = /etc/krb5/krb5.conf database_name = /var/krb5/principal admin_keytab = /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab acl_file = /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl kadmind_port = 749 max_life = 8h 0m 0s max_renewable_life = 7d 0h 0m 0s need poignant ---------> default_principal_flags = +preauth }

    In this example, only the realm title definition in the [realms] section is changed.

  • Create the KDC database by using the kdb5_util command.

    The kdb5_util command, which is located in /usr/sbin, creates the KDC database. When used with the -s option, this command creates a stash file that is used to authenticate the KDC to itself before the kadmind and krb5kdc daemons are started.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kdb5_util create -r EXAMPLE.COM -s Initializing database '/var/krb5/principal' for realm 'EXAMPLE.COM' master key title 'K/M@EXAMPLE.COM' You will subsist prompted for the database Master Password. It is vital that you NOT FORGET this password. Enter KDC database master key: key Re-enter KDC database master key to verify: key

    The -r option followed by the realm title is not required if the realm title is equivalent to the domain title in the server’s title space.

  • Edit the Kerberos access control list file (kadm5.acl).

    Once populated, the /etc/krb5/kadm5.acl file contains everything principal names that are allowed to administer the KDC. The first entry that is added might recognize similar to the following:

    lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM *

    This entry gives the lucy/admin principal in the EXAMPLE.COM realm the aptitude to modify principals or policies in the KDC. The default installation includes an asterisk (*) to match everything admin principals. This default could subsist a security risk, so it is more secure to include a list of everything of the admin principals. descry the kadm5.acl(4) man page for more information.

  • Edit the /etc/gss/mech file.

    The /etc/gss/mech file contains the GSSAPI based security mechanism names, its demur identifier (OID), and a shared library that implements the services for that mechanism under the GSSAPI. Change the following from:

    # Mechanism title demur Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1 kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5

    To the following:

    # Mechanism title demur Identifier Shared Library Kernel Module # kerberos_v5 1.2.840.113554.1.2.2 gl/mech_krb5.so gl_kmech_krb5 diffie_hellman_640_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.4 dh640-0.so.1 diffie_hellman_1024_0 1.3.6.4.1.42.2.26.2.5 dh1024-0.so.1
  • Run the kadmin.local command to create principals.

    You can add as many admin principals as you need. But you must add at least one admin principal to complete the KDC configuration process. In the following example, lucy/admin is added as the principal.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin.local kadmin.local: addprinc lucy/admin Enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Re-enter password for principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM": Principal "lucy/admin@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin.local:
  • Create a keytab file for the kadmind service.

    The following command sequence creates a special keytab file with principal entries for lucy and tom. These principals are needed for the kadmind service. In addition, you can optionally add NFS service principals, host principals, LDAP principals, and so on.

    When the principal instance is a host name, the fully qualified domain title (FQDN) must subsist entered in lowercase letters, regardless of the case of the domain title in the /etc/resolv.conf file.

    kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab kadmin/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal kadmin/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption character DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local: ktadd -k /etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab changepw/kdc1.example.com Entry for principal changepw/kdc1.example.com with kvno 3, encryption character DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab WRFILE:/etc/krb5/kadm5.keytab. kadmin.local:

    Once you hold added everything of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin.local as follows:

    kadmin.local: quit
  • Start the Kerberos daemons as shown:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc start kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master start

    Note

    You discontinue the Kerberos daemons by running the following commands:

    kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc stop kdc1 # /etc/init.d/kdc.master stop
  • Add principals by using the SEAM Administration Tool.

    To execute this, you must log on with one of the admin principal names that you created earlier in this procedure. However, the following command-line illustration is shown for simplicity.

    kdc1 # /usr/sbin/kadmin -p lucy/admin Enter password: kws_admin_password kadmin:
  • Create the master KDC host principal which is used by Kerberized applications such as klist and kprop.

    kadmin: addprinc -randkey host/kdc1.example.com Principal "host/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • (Optional) Create the master KDC root principal which is used for authenticated NFS mounting.

    kadmin: addprinc root/kdc1.example.com Enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Re-enter password for principal root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: password Principal "root/kdc1.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM" created. kadmin:
  • Add the master KDC’s host principal to the master KDC’s keytab file which allows this principal to subsist used automatically.

    kadmin: ktadd host/kdc1.example.com kadmin: Entry for principal host/kdc1.example.com with ->kvno 3, encryption character DES-CBC-CRC added to keytab ->WRFILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab kadmin:

    Once you hold added everything of the required principals, you can exit from kadmin as follows:

    kadmin: quit
  • Run the kinit command to obtain and cache an initial ticket-granting ticket (credential) for the principal.

    This ticket is used for authentication by the Kerberos v5 system. kinit only needs to subsist elope by the client at this time. If the Sun ONE directory server were a Kerberos client also, this step would need to subsist done for the server. However, you may want to consume this to verify that Kerberos is up and running.

    kdclient # /usr/bin/kinit root/kdclient.example.com Password for root/kdclient.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM: passwd
  • Check and verify that you hold a ticket with the klist command.

    The klist command reports if there is a keytab file and displays the principals. If the results note that there is no keytab file or that there is no NFS service principal, you need to verify the completion of everything of the previous steps.

    # klist -k Keytab name: FILE:/etc/krb5/krb5.keytab KVNO Principal ---- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 3 nfs/host.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM

    The illustration given here assumes a lone domain. The KDC may reside on the identical machine as the Sun ONE directory server for testing purposes, but there are security considerations to select into account on where the KDCs reside.

  • With regards to the configuration of Kerberos v5 in conjunction with the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software, you are finished with the Kerberos v5 part. It’s now time to recognize at what is required to subsist configured on the Sun ONE directory server side.

    Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 GSSAPI Configuration

    As previously discussed, the Generic Security Services Application Program Interface (GSSAPI), is criterion interface that enables you to consume a security mechanism such as Kerberos v5 to authenticate clients. The server uses the GSSAPI to actually validate the identity of a particular user. Once this user is validated, it’s up to the SASL mechanism to apply the GSSAPI mapping rules to obtain a DN that is the bind DN for everything operations during the connection.

    The first detail discussed is the original identity mapping functionality.

    The identity mapping service is required to map the credentials of another protocol, such as SASL DIGEST-MD5 and GSSAPI to a DN in the directory server. As you will descry in the following example, the identity mapping feature uses the entries in the cn=identity mapping, cn=config configuration branch, whereby each protocol is defined and whereby each protocol must accomplish the identity mapping. For more information on the identity mapping feature, refer to the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 Documents.

    To accomplish the GSSAPI Configuration for the Sun ONE Directory Server Software
  • Check and verify, by retrieving the rootDSE entry, that the GSSAPI is returned as one of the supported SASL Mechanisms.

    Example of using ldapsearch to retrieve the rootDSE and Get the supported SASL mechanisms:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -b "" -s basis "(objectclass=*)" supportedSASLMechanisms supportedSASLMechanisms=EXTERNAL supportedSASLMechanisms=GSSAPI supportedSASLMechanisms=DIGEST-MD5
  • Verify that the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    By default, the GSSAPI mechanism is enabled.

    Example of using ldapsearch to verify that the GSSAPI SASL mechanism is enabled:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D"cn=Directory Manager" -w password -b "cn=SASL, cn=security,cn= config" "(objectclass=*)" # # Should return # cn=SASL, cn=security, cn=config objectClass=top objectClass=nsContainer objectClass=dsSaslConfig cn=SASL dsSaslPluginsPath=/var/Sun/mps/lib/sasl dsSaslPluginsEnable=DIGEST-MD5 dsSaslPluginsEnable=GSSAPI
  • Create and add the GSSAPI identity-mapping.ldif.

    Add the LDIF shown below to the Sun ONE Directory Server so that it contains the revise suffix for your directory server.

    You need to execute this because by default, no GSSAPI mappings are defined in the Sun ONE Directory Server 5.2 software.

    Example of a GSSAPI identity mapping LDIF file:

    # dn: cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: GSSAPI dn: cn=default,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: default dsMappedDN: uid=${Principal},ou=people,dc=example,dc=com dn: cn=same_realm,cn=GSSAPI,cn=identity mapping,cn=config objectclass: dsIdentityMapping objectclass: dsPatternMatching objectclass: nsContainer objectclass: top cn: same_realm dsMatching-pattern: ${Principal} dsMatching-regexp: (.*)@example.com dsMappedDN: uid=$1,ou=people,dc=example,dc=com

    It is vital to fabricate consume of the ${Principal} variable, because it is the only input you hold from SASL in the case of GSSAPI. Either you need to build a dn using the ${Principal} variable or you need to accomplish pattern matching to descry if you can apply a particular mapping. A principal corresponds to the identity of a user in Kerberos.

    You can find an illustration GSSAPI LDIF mappings files in ServerRoot/slapdserver/ldif/identityMapping_Examples.ldif.

    The following is an illustration using ldapmodify to execute this:

    $./ldapmodify -a -c -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -D "cn=Directory Manager" -w password -f identity-mapping.ldif -e /var/tmp/ldif.rejects 2> /var/tmp/ldapmodify.log
  • Perform a test using ldapsearch.

    To accomplish this test, character the following ldapsearch command as shown below, and admit the prompt with the kinit value you previously defined.

    Example of using ldapsearch to test the GSSAPI mechanism:

    $./ldapsearch -h directoryserver_hostname -p ldap_port -o mech=GSSAPI -o authzid="root/hostname.domainname@EXAMPLE.COM" -b "" -s basis "(objectclass=*)"

    The output that is returned should subsist the identical as without the -o option.

    If you execute not consume the -h hostname option, the GSS code ends up looking for a localhost.domainname Kerberos ticket, and an mistake occurs.


  • Guide to vendor-specific IT security certifications | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    Despite the wide selection of vendor-specific information technology security certifications, identifying which...

    ones best suit your educational or career needs is fairly straightforward.

    This pilot to vendor-specific IT security certifications includes an alphabetized table of security certification programs from various vendors, a brief description of each certification and advice for further details.

    Introduction: Choosing vendor-specific information technology security certifications

    The process of choosing the birthright vendor-specific information technology security certifications is much simpler than choosing vendor-neutral ones. In the vendor-neutral landscape, you must evaluate the pros and cons of various programs to select the best option. On the vendor-specific side, it's only necessary to succeed these three steps:

  • Inventory your organization's security infrastructure and identify which vendors' products or services are present.
  • Check this pilot (or vendor websites, for products not covered here) to determine whether a certification applies to the products or services in your organization.
  • Decide if spending the time and money to obtain such credentials (or to fund them for your employees) is worth the resulting benefits.
  • In an environment where qualified IT security professionals can choose from numerous job openings, the benefits of individual training and certifications can subsist arduous to appraise.

    Many employers pay certification costs to develop and retain their employees, as well as to boost the organization's in-house expertise. Most descry this as a win-win for employers and employees alike, though employers often require replete or partial reimbursement for the related costs incurred if employees leave their jobs sooner than some specified payback era after certification.

    There hold been quite a few changes since the terminal survey update in 2015. The Basic category saw a substantial jump in the number of available IT security certifications due to the addition of several Brainbench certifications, in addition to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) Cyber Ops certification, the Fortinet Network Security Expert Program and original IBM certifications. 

    2017 IT security certification changes

    Certifications from AccessData, Check Point, IBM and Oracle were added to the Intermediate category, increasing the total number of certifications in that category, as well. However, the number of certifications in the Advanced category decreased, due to several IBM certifications being retired. 

    Vendor IT security certifications Basic information technology security certifications 

    Brainbench basic security certificationsBrainbench offers several basic-level information technology security certifications, each requiring the candidate to pass one exam. Brainbench security-related certifications include:

  • Backup Exec 11d (Symantec)
  • Check Point FireWall-1 Administration
  • Check Point Firewall-1 NG Administration
  • Cisco Security
  • Microsoft Security
  • NetBackup 6.5 (Symantec)
  • Source: Brainbench Information Security Administrator certifications

    CCNA Cyber OpsPrerequisites: nothing required; training is recommended.

    This associate-level certification prepares cybersecurity professionals for work as cybersecurity analysts responding to security incidents as piece of a security operations seat team in a large organization.

    The CCNA Cyber Ops certification requires candidates to pass two written exams.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Cyber Ops

    CCNA SecurityPrerequisites: A valid Cisco CCNA Routing and Switching, Cisco Certified Entry Networking Technician or Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification.

    This credential validates that associate-level professionals are able to install, troubleshoot and monitor Cisco-routed and switched network devices for the purpose of protecting both the devices and networked data.

    A person with a CCNA Security certification can subsist expected to understand core security concepts, endpoint security, web and email content security, the management of secure access, and more. He should besides subsist able to demonstrate skills for edifice a security infrastructure, identifying threats and vulnerabilities to networks, and mitigating security threats. CCNA credential holders besides possess the technical skills and expertise necessary to manage protection mechanisms such as firewalls and intrusion prevention systems, network access, endpoint security solutions, and web and email security.

    The successful completion of one exam is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNA Security

    Check Point Certified Security Administrator (CCSA) R80Prerequisites: Basic information of networking; CCSA training and six months to one year of flavor with Check Point products are recommended.

    Check Point's foundation-level credential prepares individuals to install, configure and manage Check Point security system products and technologies, such as security gateways, firewalls and virtual private networks (VPNs). Credential holders besides possess the skills necessary to secure network and internet communications, upgrade products, troubleshoot network connections, configure security policies, protect email and message content, preserve networks from intrusions and other threats, resolve attacks, manage user access in a corporate LAN environment, and configure tunnels for remote access to corporate resources.

    Candidates must pass a lone exam to obtain this credential.

    Source: Check Point CCSA Certification

    IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0Prerequisites: IBM suggests that candidates subsist highly close with the IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 console. They should hold flavor taking actions; activating analyses; and using Fixlets, tasks and baselines in the environment. They should besides understand patching, component services, client log files and troubleshooting within IBM Endpoint Manager.

    This credential recognizes professionals who consume IBM Endpoint Manager V9.0 daily. Candidates for this certification should know the key concepts of Endpoint Manager, subsist able to relate the system's components and subsist able to consume the console to accomplish routine tasks.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Editor's note: IBM is retiring this certification as of May 31, 2017; there will subsist a follow-on test available as of April 2017 for IBM BigFix Compliance V9.5 Fundamental Administration, Test C2150-627.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Endpoint Manager V9.0

    IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud ProtectionPrerequisites: IBM recommends that candidates hold flavor with network data communications, network security, and the Windows and Mac operating systems.

    This credential pertains mainly to sales engineers who support the Trusteer Fraud product portfolio for web fraud management, and who can implement a Trusteer Fraud solution. Candidates must understand Trusteer product functionality, know how to deploy the product, and subsist able to troubleshoot the product and resolve the results.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Certified Associate -- Security Trusteer Fraud Protection

    McAfee Product SpecialistPrerequisites: nothing required; completion of an associated training course is highly recommended.

    McAfee information technology security certification holders possess the information and technical skills necessary to install, configure, manage and troubleshoot specific McAfee products, or, in some cases, a suite of products.

    Candidates should possess one to three years of direct flavor with one of the specific product areas.

    The current products targeted by this credential include:

  • McAfee Advanced Threat Defense products
  • McAfee ePolicy Orchestrator and VirusScan products
  • McAfee Network Security Platform
  • McAfee Host Intrusion Prevention
  • McAfee Data Loss Prevention Endpoint products
  • McAfee Security Information and Event Management products
  • All credentials require passing one exam.

    Source: McAfee Certification Program

    Microsoft Technology Associate (MTA)Prerequisites: None; training recommended.

    This credential started as an academic-only credential for students, but Microsoft made it available to the universal public in 2012.

    There are 10 different MTA credentials across three tracks (IT Infrastructure with five certs, Database with one and progress with four). The IT Infrastructure track includes a Security Fundamentals credential, and some of the other credentials include security components or topic areas.

    To win each MTA certification, candidates must pass the corresponding exam. 

    Source: Microsoft MTA Certifications

    Fortinet Network Security Expert (NSE)Prerequisites: Vary by credential.

    The Fortinet NSE program has eight levels, each of which corresponds to a sever network security credential within the program. The credentials are:

  • NSE 1 -- Understand network security concepts.
  • NSE 2 -- Sell Fortinet gateway solutions.
  • NSE 3 (Associate) -- Sell Fortinet advanced security solutions.
  • NSE 4 (Professional) -- Configure and maintain FortiGate Unified Threat Management products.
  • NSE 5 (Analyst) -- Implement network security management and analytics.
  • NSE 6 (Specialist) – Understand advanced security technologies beyond the firewall.
  • NSE 7 (Troubleshooter) -- Troubleshoot internet security issues.
  • NSE 8 (Expert) -- Design, configure, install and troubleshoot a network security solution in a live environment.
  • NSE 1 is open to anyone, but is not required. The NSE 2 and NSE 3 information technology security certifications are available only to Fortinet employees and partners. Candidates for NSE 4 through NSE 8 should select the exams through Pearson VUE.

    Source: Fortinet NSE

    Symantec Certified Specialist (SCS)This security certification program focuses on data protection, tall availability and security skills involving Symantec products.

    To become an SCS, candidates must select an belt of focus and pass an exam. everything the exams cover core elements, such as installation, configuration, product administration, day-to-day operation and troubleshooting for the selected focus area.

    As of this writing, the following exams are available:

  • Exam 250-215: Administration of Symantec Messaging Gateway 10.5
  • Exam 250-410: Administration of Symantec Control Compliance Suite 11.x
  • Exam 250-420: Administration of Symantec VIP
  • Exam 250-423: Administration of Symantec IT Management Suite 8.0
  • Exam 250-424: Administration of Data Loss Prevention 14.5
  • Exam 250-425: Administration of Symantec Cyber Security Services
  • Exam 250-426: Administration of Symantec Data seat Security -- Server Advanced 6.7
  • Exam 250-427: Administration of Symantec Advanced Threat Protection 2.0.2
  • Exam 250-428: Administration of Symantec Endpoint Protection 14
  • Exam 250-513: Administration of Symantec Data Loss Prevention 12
  • Source: Symantec Certification

    Intermediate information technology security certifications 

    AccessData Certified Examiner (ACE)Prerequisites: nothing required; the AccessData BootCamp and Advanced Forensic Toolkit (FTK) courses are recommended.

    This credential recognizes a professional's proficiency using AccessData's FTK, FTK Imager, Registry Viewer and Password Recovery Toolkit. However, candidates for the certification must besides hold qualify digital forensic information and subsist able to interpret results gathered from AccessData tools.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one online exam (which is free). Although a boot camp and advanced courses are available for a fee, AccessData provides a set of free exam preparation videos to back candidates who prefer to self-study.

    The certification is valid for two years, after which credential holders must select the current exam to maintain their certification.

    Source: Syntricate ACE Training

    Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) Security Prerequisites: CCNA Security or any CCIE certification.

    This Cisco credential recognizes professionals who are accountable for router, switch, networking device and appliance security. Candidates must besides know how to select, deploy, support and troubleshoot firewalls, VPNs and intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system products in a networking environment.

    Successful completion of four exams is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCNP Security

    Check Point Certified Security Expert (CCSE)Prerequisite: CCSA certification R70 or later.

    This is an intermediate-level credential for security professionals seeking to demonstrate skills at maximizing the performance of security networks.

    A CCSE demonstrates a information of strategies and advanced troubleshooting for Check Point's GAiA operating system, including installing and managing VPN implementations, advanced user management and firewall concepts, policies, and backing up and migrating security gateway and management servers, among other tasks. The CCSE focuses on Check Point's VPN, Security Gateway and Management Server systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSE program

    Cisco Cybersecurity SpecialistPrerequisites: nothing required; CCNA Security certification and an understanding of TCP/IP are strongly recommended.

    This Cisco credential targets IT security professionals who possess in-depth technical skills and information in the realm of threat detection and mitigation. The certification focuses on areas such as event monitoring, event analysis (traffic, alarm, security events) and incident response.

    One exam is required.

    Source: Cisco Systems Cybersecurity Specialist

    Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)Prerequisites: nothing required; training is recommended.

    The CSSA exam covers basic administration of SonicWall appliances and the network and system security behind such appliances.

    Classroom training is available, but not required to win the CSSA. Candidates must pass one exam to become certified.

    Source: SonicWall Certification programs

    EnCase Certified Examiner (EnCE)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend 64 hours of authorized training or hold 12 months of computer forensic work experience. Completion of a formal application process is besides required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the consume of Guidance Software's EnCase computer forensics tools and software.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a practical component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCE

    EnCase Certified eDiscovery Practitioner (EnCEP)Prerequisites: Candidates must attend one of two authorized training courses and hold three months of flavor in eDiscovery collection, processing and project management. A formal application process is besides required.

    Aimed at both private- and public-sector computer forensic specialists, this certification permits individuals to become certified in the consume of Guidance Software's EnCase eDiscovery software, and it recognizes their proficiency in eDiscovery planning, project management and best practices, from legal hold to file creation.

    EnCEP-certified professionals possess the technical skills necessary to manage e-discovery, including the search, collection, preservation and processing of electronically stored information in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

    Individuals can gain this certification by passing a two-phase exam: a computer-based component and a scenario component.

    Source: Guidance Software EnCEP Certification Program

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium V10.0Prerequisites: IBM recommends basic information of operating systems and databases, hardware or virtual machines, networking and protocols, auditing and compliance, and information security guidelines.

    IBM Security Guardium is a suite of protection and monitoring tools designed to protect databases and colossal data sets. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security Guardium credential is aimed at administrators who plan, install, configure and manage Guardium implementations. This may include monitoring the environment, including data; defining policy rules; and generating reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security Guardium Certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6Prerequisites: IBM recommends a working information of IBM Security QRadar SIEM Administration and IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager, as well as universal information of networking, risk management, system administration and network topology.

    QRadar Risk Manager automates the risk management process in enterprises by monitoring network device configurations and compliance. The IBM Certified Administrator -- Security QRadar Risk Manager V7.2.6 credential certifies administrators who consume QRadar to manage security risks in their organization. Certification candidates must know how to review device configurations, manage devices, monitor policies, schedule tasks and generate reports.

    Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: IBM Security QRadar Risk Manager Certification

    IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1Prerequisites: IBM recommends a basic information of the IBM Security Network Intrusion Prevention System (GX) V4.6.2, IBM Security Network Protection (XGS) V5.3.1, Microsoft SQL Server, Windows Server operating system administration and network security.

    The Security SiteProtector System enables organizations to centrally manage their network, server and endpoint security agents and appliances. The IBM Certified Analyst -- Security SiteProtector System V3.1.1 credential is designed to certify security analysts who consume the SiteProtector System to monitor and manage events, monitor system health, optimize SiteProtector and generate reports.

    To obtain this certification, candidates must pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Security SiteProtector Certification

    Oracle Certified Expert, Oracle Solaris 10 Certified Security AdministratorPrerequisite: Oracle Certified Professional, Oracle Solaris 10 System Administrator.

    This credential aims to certify experienced Solaris 10 administrators with security interest and experience. It's a midrange credential that focuses on universal security principles and features, installing systems securely, application and network security, principle of least privilege, cryptographic features, auditing, and zone security.

    A lone exam -- geared toward the Solaris 10 operating system or the OpenSolaris environment -- is required to obtain this credential.

    Source: Oracle Solaris Certification

    Oracle Mobile SecurityPrerequisites: Oracle recommends that candidates understand enterprise mobility, mobile application management and mobile device management; hold two years of flavor implementing Oracle Access Management Suite Plus 11g; and hold flavor in at least one other Oracle product family.

    This credential recognizes professionals who create configuration designs and implement the Oracle Mobile Security Suite. Candidates must hold a working information of Oracle Mobile Security Suite Access Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Administrative Console, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Notification Server, Oracle Mobile Security Suite Containerization and Oracle Mobile Security Suite Provisioning and Policies. They must besides know how to deploy the Oracle Mobile Security Suite.

    Although the certification is designed for Oracle PartnerNetwork members, it is available to any candidate. Successful completion of one exam is required.

    Source: Oracle Mobile Security Certification

    RSA Archer Certified Administrator (CA)Prerequisites: nothing required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product flavor as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, administer, maintain and troubleshoot the RSA Archer Governance, Risk and Compliance (GRC) platform.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on integration and configuration management, security administration, and the data presentation and communication features of the RSA Archer GRC product.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Archer Certification

    RSA SecurID Certified Administrator (RSA Authentication Manager 8.0)Prerequisites: nothing required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product flavor as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    Dell EMC offers this certification, which is designed for security professionals who manage, maintain and administer enterprise security systems based on RSA SecurID system products and RSA Authentication Manager 8.0.

    RSA SecurID CAs can operate and maintain RSA SecurID components within the context of their operational systems and environments; troubleshoot security and implementation problems; and work with updates, patches and fixes. They can besides accomplish administrative functions and populate and manage users, set up and consume software authenticators, and understand the configuration required for RSA Authentication Manager 8.0 system operations.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Authentication Manager Certification

    RSA Security Analytics CAPrerequisites: nothing required; Dell EMC highly recommends RSA training and two years of product flavor as preparation for the RSA certification exams.

    This Dell EMC certification is aimed at security professionals who configure, manage, administer and troubleshoot the RSA Security Analytics product. information of the product's features, as well the aptitude to consume the product to identify security concerns, are required.

    Candidates must pass one exam, which focuses on RSA Security Analytics functions and capabilities, configuration, management, monitoring and troubleshooting.

    Source: Dell EMC RSA Security Analytics

    Advanced information technology security certifications 

    CCIE SecurityPrerequisites: nothing required; three to five years of professional working flavor recommended.

    Arguably one of the most coveted certifications around, the CCIE is in a league of its own. Having been around since 2002, the CCIE Security track is unrivaled for those interested in dealing with information security topics, tools and technologies in networks built using or around Cisco products and platforms.

    The CCIE certifies that candidates possess expert technical skills and information of security and VPN products; an understanding of Windows, Unix, Linux, network protocols and domain title systems; an understanding of identity management; an in-depth understanding of Layer 2 and 3 network infrastructures; and the aptitude to configure end-to-end secure networks, as well as to accomplish troubleshooting and threat mitigation.

    To achieve this certification, candidates must pass both a written and lab exam. The lab exam must subsist passed within 18 months of the successful completion of the written exam.

    Source: Cisco Systems CCIE Security Certification

    Check Point Certified Managed Security Expert (CCMSE)Prerequisites: CCSE certification R75 or later and 6 months to 1 year of flavor with Check Point products.

    This advanced-level credential is aimed at those seeking to learn how to install, configure and troubleshoot Check Point's Multi-Domain Security Management with Virtual System Extension.

    Professionals are expected to know how to migrate physical firewalls to a virtualized environment, install and manage an MDM environment, configure tall availability, implement global policies and accomplish troubleshooting.

    Source: Check Point CCMSE

    Check Point Certified Security Master (CCSM)Prerequisites: CCSE R70 or later and flavor with Windows Server, Unix, TCP/IP, and networking and internet technologies.

    The CCSM is the most advanced Check Point certification available. This credential is aimed at security professionals who implement, manage and troubleshoot Check Point security products. Candidates are expected to subsist experts in perimeter, internal, web and endpoint security systems.

    To acquire this credential, candidates must pass a written exam.

    Source: Check Point CCSM Certification

    Certified SonicWall Security Professional (CCSP)Prerequisites: Attendance at an advanced administration training course.

    Those who achieve this certification hold attained a tall smooth of mastery of SonicWall products. In addition, credential holders should subsist able to deploy, optimize and troubleshoot everything the associated product features.

    Earning a CSSP requires taking an advanced administration course that focuses on either network security or secure mobile access, and passing the associated certification exam.

    Source: SonicWall CSSP certification

    IBM Certified Administrator -- Tivoli Monitoring V6.3Prerequisites: Security-related requirements include basic information of SSL, data encryption and system user accounts.

    Those who attain this certification are expected to subsist capable of planning, installing, configuring, upgrading and customizing workspaces, policies and more. In addition, credential holders should subsist able to troubleshoot, administer and maintain an IBM Tivoli Monitoring V6.3 environment.

    Candidates must successfully pass one exam.

    Source: IBM Tivoli Certified Administrator

    Master Certified SonicWall Security Administrator (CSSA)The Master CSSA is an intermediate between the base-level CSSA credential (itself an intermediate certification) and the CSSP.

    To qualify for Master CSSA, candidates must pass three (or more) CSSA exams, and then email training@sonicwall.com to request the designation. There are no other charges or requirements involved.

    Source: SonicWall Master CSSA

    Conclusion 

    Remember, when it comes to selecting vendor-specific information technology security certifications, your organization's existing or planned security product purchases should decree your options. If your security infrastructure includes products from vendors not mentioned here, subsist certain to check with them to determine if training or certifications on such products are available.

    About the author:Ed Tittel is a 30-plus year IT veteran who's worked as a developer, networking consultant, technical trainer, writer and expert witness. Perhaps best known for creating the Exam Cram series, Ed has contributed to more than 100 books on many computing topics, including titles on information security, Windows OSes and HTML. Ed besides blogs regularly for TechTarget (Windows Enterprise Desktop), Tom's IT Pro and GoCertify.


    SQL Server Tips and Techniques for Database Performance Optimization | killexams.com existent questions and Pass4sure dumps

    SQL servers are very tangled to grasp, even for professionals. As far as performance tuning is concerned, a lot of DBAs don't even know where to begin. However, there are a lot of facets of the whole system, which means that a SQL server consultant has to account a lot of variables while tuning the SQL server to perfection. Although flavor is the biggest implement in regards to performance tuning, basic knowledge, and minimal skill, it can besides subsist utilized to achieve marked success. The following tips will back in fine-tuning the SQL server for database optimization and better performance:

    Stop Making the SQL Server Wait Around

    Every time the SQL Server gets held up while functioning, it tracks the incident in the figure of wait statistics. This is one of the most crucial areas to master while dealing with SQL Server. Usually, the server is paused as it is looking for specific resources to near up and assist in completing the function. To find which resources are required, one must hold information of wait statistics. If the intuition of blockage can subsist conveniently found, solving it will no longer subsist a problem. A lot of time will subsist saved while doing this instead of looking at the I/O issues.

    Locate the I/O Bottlenecks

    I/O bottlenecks are one of the top reasons for performance issues in SQL Servers. To find if you hold I/O issues, succeed the given methods:

  • Check if there is tall page_IO_latch or log_write in your wait statistics
  • Use DMF sys.dm_io_virtual_file_stats() to find any workable areas where there are unreasonable I/O stalls
  • Use PerfMon counters
  • If you locate any physical I/O bottlenecks, find everything the queries that are causing the problem. Fine tune them before adding additional hardware. execute not hold up the writing to the log file, as everything the DML operations will become impeded. tall latency for log writes is besides a note of a problem.

    Find the Problem Queries

    In any SQL server, there are usually 8 to 10 queries or stored procedures that obstruct the activity of the system. Locating these queries and fine-tuning them will subsist beneficial for better performance and consistency without any additional hardware or software. There are a lot of queries that will cater to specific problems. An essential tip is to not give much weight to the elapsed time and let the codes execute their work of solving the issue. Statement lengths might subsist surprising, but they will effectively unravel the blocking issues present in the system.

    Strategize to Reuse

    As hardware is getting more powerful and affordable, the transaction rates in the database applications are ever-increasing. This is one of the reasons why programmers pack more stuff in one server and extend the activity in the system. However, compiling the query plans is one of the most crucial operations when it comes to the performance and reminiscence of the SQL server. There are a lot of applications that can extend the quicken of the progress of a function, but execute not reuse the query plan. This can subsist detrimental over a long era of time as the resources and time will subsist constantly wasted over a command that has been previously run. It is better to consume counts column and order the plans by the text column so similar entries can subsist classified as a singular unit.

    Look Out for the Index Usage

    One of the most underutilised sources of information is the sys.dm_db_index_operational_stats() DMF. This DMF helps in deciphering everything kinds of information for determining the indexes and how they are used. You can Get to know it if you are scanning the index or using seeks. Even petite data dote elapsed time for a particular process can subsist gained. This DMF is one of the most useful tools for crucial information.

    Separate the Log and Data Files

    This is one of the most basic but disregarded rules for better performance of the system. Separating the log and data files onto other physical drives seems tedious to do, so most people skip this step. This step is quite advantageous as it can back enhance the performance levels of the system, and the user will witness the volumes of the transactions going up.

    Topics:

    database ,database optimization ,sql server ,sql server performance issues ,database performance



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    zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/5s0qsc9ba693c56364fd6be2a0bd6ad2ccbd3
    Calameo : http://en.calameo.com/books/004923526bc8b6c8783a5






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