000-077 exam Dumps Source : xSeries Technical high Performance Servers V2
Test Code : 000-077
Test designation : xSeries Technical high Performance Servers V2
Vendor designation : IBM
: 147 existent Questions
observed most 000-077 Questions in dumps that I prepared.
Nice..I cleared the 000-077 exam. The killexams.com question bank helped a lot. Very useful indeed. Cleared the 000-077 with 95%.I am positive everyone can pass the exam after completing your tests. The explanations were very helpful. Thanks. It was a worthy sustain with killexams.com in terms of collection of questions, their interpretation and pattern in which you accommodate set the papers. I am grateful to you and give plenary credit to you guys for my success.
000-077 examination prep were given to breathe this easy.
I was about to give up exam 000-077 because I wasnt confident in whether I would pass or not. With just a week remaining I decided to switch to killexams.com for my exam preparation. Never thought that the topics that I had always elope away from would breathe so much fun to study; its light and short way of getting to the points made my preparation lot easier. any thanks to killexams.com , I never thought I would pass my exam but I did pass with flying colors.
how many days education required to bypass 000-077 examination?
Have just passed my 000-077 exam. Questions are legitimate and accurate, which is the pleasurable information. i wasensured ninety nine% skip price and money lower back assure, however obviously i accommodate got exceptional scores. thatsthe best information.
it is extraordinary! I got dumps present day 000-077 examination.
I noiseless dont forget the arduous time I had while mastering for the 000-077 exam. I used to are seeking for inspirit from friends, but I felt maximum of the material became vague and overwhelmed. Later, i institute killexams.com and its dump. through the valuable material I discovered everything from top to bottom of the provided material. It become so precise. in the given questions, I replied any questions with model option. thanks for brining any of the illimitable happiness in my profession.
Did you tried these 000-077 actual query pecuniary institution and study guide.
I got severa questions ordinary from this aide and made an incredible 88% in my 000-077 exam. At that factor, my accomplice proposed me to capture after the Dumps aide of killexams.com as a fleet reference. It cautiously secured any thematerial thru quick answers that were useful to consider. My next advancement obliged me to select killexams.com for any my destiny tests. i used to breathe in an problem a way to blanket any of the material inner three-week time.
can you conform with that every one 000-077 questions I had accommodate been requested in existent check.
I could frequently leave out lessons and that would breathe a massive quandary for me if my parents located out. I needed to cowl my mistakes and ensure that they could conform with in me. I knew that one manner to cowl my errors become to achieve nicely in my 000-077 test that turned into very near. If I did nicely in my 000-077 test, my parents would really dote me again and they did because I turned into able to limpid the test. It changed into this killexams.com that gave me the precise instructions. Thank you.
That turned into terrific! I got dumps modern-day 000-077 exam.
The killexams.com is the top class web page where my goals forward authentic. by way of the consume of the dump for the instruction genuinely introduced the existent spark to the studies and severely ended up by using obtaining the qualitymarks inside the 000-077 exam. it is quite light to visage any exam with the assist of your test dump. thank youplenty for all. withhold up the top class work guys.
Is there any way to pass 000-077 exam at first attempt?
I had taken the 000-077 arrangement from the killexams.com as that was an mediocre stage for the preparation which had eventually given the best flat of the planning to prick the 92% scores inside the 000-077 check exams. I really delighted in the system I got issues the things emptied the spicy technique and thru the advocate of the same; I had at long eventual got the thing out and about. It had made my arrangement a ton of simpler and with the advocate of the killexams.com I had been prepared to develop well inside the life.
These 000-077 Latest dumps works worthy in the existent test.
At closing, my marks 90% turned into more than choice. on the point when the exam 000-077 turned into handiest 1 week away, my planning changed into in an indiscriminate situation. I expected that i would want to retake inside the occasion of unhappiness to find eighty% marks. Taking after a partners advice, i bought the from killexams.com and will capture a mild arrangement through typically composed material.
genuinely first-firstexcellent enjoy!
I am one among the high achiever in the 000-077 exam. What a grotesque material they provided. Within a short time I grasped everything on any the material topics. It was simply superb! I suffered a lot while preparing for my previous attempt, but this time I cleared my exam very easily without tension and worries. It is truly admirable learning journey for me. Thanks a lot killexams.com for the existent support.
IBM these days introduced that it is freeing its Watson-branded AI services — dote the Watson Assistant for constructing conversational interfaces and Watson OpenScale for managing the AI lifestyles cycle — from its personal cloud and permitting enterprises to capture its platform and working it of their own records facilities. In a way, that you can deem of this as Watson as a managed provider.
“shoppers are basically combating infusing AI into their purposes since the information is disbursed in assorted places,” IBM Watson’s CTO and chief architects Ruchir Puri instructed me after I asked him for IBM’s reasoning behind this circulation. “It’s in these hybrid environments, they’ve obtained distinctive cloud implementations, they accommodate got information in their inner most cloud as well. they accommodate been struggling because the suppliers of AI had been attempting to lock them into a specific implementation that isn't proper to this hybrid cloud ambiance.”
So with this conclusion of bringing Watson to any cloud, IBM desires to supply these groups the alternative to bring AI to their facts, which is enormously tougher and costlier to move, in any case. Puri too wired that many organizations accommodate lengthy wanted to consume AI to do their operations greater productive, but they vital to elope their AI gear in an atmosphere they manage and believe relaxed with.
at the core of the technical necessities for running Watson of their public or private cloud is IBM Cloud inner most, the business’s deepest cloud platform that uses open-source technologies for working gear and capabilities dote Kubernetes and Cloud Foundry. That’s the platform that makes it workable for corporations to then elope Watson, too (which itself runs on containers, too).
at this time, the seat of attention of this fireplace launch is on Watson helper and Watson OpenScale. “The capabilities we're releasing at the flash are in accordance with their two flagship products. That addresses a really significant belt of consume cases that they forward throughout,” renowned Puri. “in the remaining piece of the 12 months, they will carry the leisure of the capabilities [to the platform]. as an example, Watson skills Studio will forward together with it as well, in addition to Watson’s herbal language understanding capabilities that they currently accommodate obtainable in their public cloud atmosphere can breathe ported on to it as neatly.”
With that, Puri argues, IBM will present organisations a plenary spectrum of tools for setting up and working AI models the usage of structured and unstructured records, in addition to a plenary monitoring and actuality cycle management suite.
moreover this, IBM too these days introduced that it's launching a brand recent version of its Watson desktop researching Accelerator that brings excessive-performance GPU clustering to power methods and X86 methods and which guarantees to precipitate up AI performance as much as 10x.
The commerce additionally today announced IBM commerce Automation Intelligence with Watson, although it didn’t moderately delve into the particulars. This recent service, the enterprise says, will give enterprise leaders the skill “to rehearse AI at once to purposes, strengthening the group of workers, from clerical to information laborers, to intelligently automate work from the mundane to the complex.” I’m now not definitely inescapable what that capability, but I’m inescapable the enterprise leaders who buy this provider will figure it out.
in this slidecast, Chris Porter and Jeff Kamiol from IBM represent how IBM exorbitant efficiency services bring versatile, software-capable clusters in the cloud for groups that requisite to promptly and economically add computing means for high efficiency application workloads.
IBM exorbitant efficiency capabilities enables quickly deployment of technical computing, analytics or Hadoop workloads in the cloud. groups using the carrier can conveniently meet further useful resource demands without the can pervade of deciding to buy or managing in-apartment infrastructure, minimizing their administrative affliction and promptly addressing evolving enterprise wants. The functions consist of market-leading IBM Platform LSF and IBM Platform Symphony workload management application, IBM Spectrum Scale application defined storage, IBM exorbitant efficiency functions for Hadoop and the brand recent IBM exorbitant performance services for EDA. The application is built-in, provisioned and deployed as piece of finished, integrated services which contains bare-metal IBM SoftLayer infrastructure, non-compulsory InfinfiBand interconnects and aid from an skilled and dedicated cloud operations group. a world presence with the option of facts core spot helps breathe positive that facts laws are met.
View the Slides * download the MP3 * Subscribe on iTunes * Subscribe to RSS
check in for their insideHPC e-newsletter
For now, AI methods are ordinarily machine getting to know-based and “slim” – powerful as they're by latest requisites, they are constrained to performing a number of, narrowly-defined tasks. AI of the next decade will leverage the superior power of abysmal researching and develop into broader, fixing a better array of extra knotty issues. moreover, the everyday-intention applied sciences used today for AI deployments will find replaced by using a technology stack that’s AI-specific and exponentially sooner – and it’s going to capture a lot of money.
in the hunt for to capture seat stage in AI’s unfolding, IBM – in aggregate with broad apple situation and several expertise heavies – is investing $2 billion within the IBM research AI Hardware core, focused on setting up subsequent era AI silicon, networking and manufacturing in an exertion to, IBM pointed out, bring 1,000x AI efficiency effectivity improvement over the next decade.
“today, AI’s ever-increasing sophistication is pushing the boundaries of the trade’s existing hardware systems as clients discover more methods to comprise a considerable number of sources of facts from the aspect, web of things, and greater,” mentioned Mukesh Khare, VP, IBM research Semiconductor and AI Hardware community, in a blog announcing the challenge. “…today’s systems accommodate achieved improved AI efficiency by means of infusing desktop-discovering capabilities with high-bandwidth CPUs and GPUs, specialized AI accelerators and high-performance networking equipment. To retain this trajectory, recent considering is required to precipitate up AI efficiency scaling to vigorous to ever-increasing AI workload complexities.”
IBM talked about the core will breathe the nucleus of a recent ecosystem of research and industrial partners collaborating with IBM researchers. companions announced these days comprise Samsung for manufacturing and research, Mellanox applied sciences for top-performance interconnect machine, Synopsys for utility platforms, emulation and prototyping, and IP for establishing high-efficiency silicon chips, and semiconductor gear businesses applied materials and Tokyo Electron.
Hosted at SUNY Polytechnic Institute, Albany, broad apple, in collaboration with neighboring Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute seat for Computational innovations, IBM mentioned the company and its companions will “enhance a number of technologies from chip flat gadgets, substances, and architecture, to the software supporting AI workloads.”
large Blue talked about analysis on the middle will seat of attention on overcoming “present machine-getting to know limitations via procedures that comprise approximate computing through Digital AI Cores and in-memory computing via Analog AI Cores. These technologies will provide the thousand-fold increases in efficiency effectivity required for plenary cognizance of abysmal studying AI, the subsequent main milestone in AI evolution, based on IBM.
“A key belt of analysis and building could breathe methods that meet the demands of abysmal learning inference and practising tactics,” Khare noted. “Such systems tender huge accuracy improvements over extra regularly occurring computer studying for unstructured information. these extreme processing calls for will develop exponentially as algorithms develop into more knotty so as to convey AI programs with improved cognitive expertise.”
Khare referred to the research seat will host R&D, emulation, prototyping, testing and simulation actions for brand spanking recent AI cores principally designed for working towards and deploying advanced AI models, together with a perceive at various mattress by which members can demonstrate improvements in actual-world purposes. really pleasurable wafer processing for the seat will breathe completed in Albany with some guide at IBM’s Thomas J. Watson research core in Yorktown Heights, recent york.
Obviously it is arduous assignment to pick solid certification questions/answers assets concerning review, reputation and validity since individuals find sham because of picking incorrectly benefit. Killexams.com ensure to serve its customers best to its assets concerning exam dumps update and validity. The vast majority of other's sham report objection customers forward to us for the brain dumps and pass their exams cheerfully and effectively. They never trade off on their review, reputation and trait because killexams review, killexams reputation and killexams customer certitude is vital to us. Uniquely they deal with killexams.com review, killexams.com reputation, killexams.com sham report grievance, killexams.com trust, killexams.com validity, killexams.com report and killexams.com scam. In the event that you see any untrue report posted by their rivals with the designation killexams sham report grievance web, killexams.com sham report, killexams.com scam, killexams.com dissension or something dote this, simply remember there are constantly terrible individuals harming reputation of pleasurable administrations because of their advantages. There are a worthy many fulfilled clients that pass their exams utilizing killexams.com brain dumps, killexams PDF questions, killexams hone questions, killexams exam simulator. Visit Killexams.com, their specimen questions and test brain dumps, their exam simulator and you will realize that killexams.com is the best brain dumps site.
000-876 rehearse questions | 1Z0-335 free pdf | 70-744 test prep | HP2-W100 pdf download | HP0-S44 rehearse test | 000-315 rehearse Test | 000-200 free pdf download | A2090-735 mock exam | CFA-Level-III questions and answers | 642-467 braindumps | HP0-380 questions and answers | 3100-1 existent questions | HAT-420 braindumps | 000-N15 brain dumps | MSC-121 examcollection | NREMT-PTE test questions | 310-232 rehearse test | 400-101 existent questions | F50-532 free pdf | P2090-086 test prep |
Murder your 000-077 exam at first attempt!
killexams.com brilliant 000-077 exam simulator is to a worthy degree empowering for their customers for the exam prep. Tremendously crucial questions, focuses and definitions are highlighted in brain dumps pdf. convivial event the data in a single spot is an existent inspirit and causes you prepare for the IT confirmation exam inside a short time span navigate. The 000-077 exam offers key core interests. The killexams.com pass4sure dumps holds the fundamental questions or thoughts of the 000-077 exam.
At killexams.com, they give completely surveyed IBM 000-077 preparing assets which are the best to pass 000-077 exam, and to find certified by IBM. It is a best conclusion to precipitate up your position as an expert in the Information Technology industry. They are pleased with their notoriety of helping individuals pass the 000-077 test in their first attempt. Their prosperity rates in the previous two years accommodate been completely great, because of their upbeat clients who are currently ready to impel their positions in the fleet track. killexams.com is the main conclusion among IT experts, particularly the ones who are hoping to waddle up the progression levels quicker in their individual associations. IBM is the commerce pioneer in data innovation, and getting certified by them is an ensured approach to prevail with IT positions. They enable you to achieve actually that with their superb IBM 000-077 preparing materials.
IBM 000-077 is rare any around the globe, and the commerce and programming arrangements gave by them are being grasped by every one of the organizations. They accommodate helped in driving a great number of organizations on the beyond any doubt shot way of achievement. Far reaching learning of IBM items are viewed as a captious capability, and the experts certified by them are exceptionally esteemed in any associations.
We give genuine 000-077 pdf exam questions and answers braindumps in two arrangements. Download PDF and rehearse Tests. Pass IBM 000-077 existent Exam rapidly and effectively. The 000-077 braindumps PDF sort is accessible for perusing and printing. You can print increasingly and rehearse ordinarily. Their pass rate is high to 98.9% and the comparability rate between their 000-077 study guide and genuine exam is 90% in light of their seven-year teaching background. achieve you requisite successs in the 000-077 exam in only one attempt? I am privilege now examining for the IBM 000-077 existent exam.
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for any exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for any Orders
As the only thing that is in any way primary here is passing the 000-077 - xSeries Technical high Performance Servers V2 exam. As any that you require is a high score of IBM 000-077 exam. The just a single thing you accommodate to achieve is downloading braindumps of 000-077 exam prep directs now. They will not let you down with their unconditional guarantee. The experts likewise withhold pace with the most up and coming exam so as to give the greater piece of updated materials. Three Months free access to accommodate the capacity to them through the date of purchase. Each applicant may tolerate the cost of the 000-077 exam dumps through killexams.com at a low cost. Frequently there is a markdown for anybody all.
Quality and Value for the 000-077 Exam : killexams.com rehearse Exams for IBM 000-077 are written to the highest standards of technical accuracy, using only certified subject matter experts and published authors for development.
100% Guarantee to Pass Your 000-077 Exam : If you achieve not pass the IBM 000-077 exam using their killexams.com testing engine, they will give you a plenary REFUND of your purchasing fee.
Downloadable, Interactive 000-077 Testing engines : Their IBM 000-077 Preparation Material provides you everything you will requisite to capture IBM 000-077 exam. Details are researched and produced by IBM Certification Experts who are constantly using industry sustain to capitulate actual, and logical.
- Comprehensive questions and answers about 000-077 exam - 000-077 exam questions accompanied by exhibits - Verified Answers by Experts and almost 100% correct - 000-077 exam questions updated on regular basis - 000-077 exam preparation is in multiple-choice questions (MCQs). - Tested by multiple times before publishing - Try free 000-077 exam demo before you determine to buy it in killexams.com
killexams.com Huge Discount Coupons and Promo Codes are as under;
WC2017 : 60% Discount Coupon for any exams on website
PROF17 : 10% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $69
DEAL17 : 15% Discount Coupon for Orders greater than $99
DECSPECIAL : 10% Special Discount Coupon for any Orders
000-077 Practice Test | 000-077 examcollection | 000-077 VCE | 000-077 study guide | 000-077 practice exam | 000-077 cram
Killexams 000-782 rehearse Test | Killexams 000-995 dumps questions | Killexams 000-M79 brain dumps | Killexams 920-255 existent questions | Killexams M9510-747 rehearse test | Killexams 1T6-511 dump | Killexams 000-883 cheat sheets | Killexams HP2-K01 exam prep | Killexams 920-159 brain dumps | Killexams FM0-304 existent questions | Killexams A2070-581 braindumps | Killexams P2010-022 free pdf | Killexams HP0-M50 study guide | Killexams 000-154 rehearse test | Killexams C2150-199 braindumps | Killexams 200-500 examcollection | Killexams IIA-CIA-Part1 bootcamp | Killexams 70-338 free pdf | Killexams SPS-200 braindumps | Killexams C4090-451 cram |
Killexams NET test prep | Killexams 000-207 dump | Killexams HP0-S15 study guide | Killexams CRFA cheat sheets | Killexams 000-789 existent questions | Killexams F50-526 bootcamp | Killexams HP2-T25 brain dumps | Killexams 00M-620 test prep | Killexams C4040-227 exam prep | Killexams 190-612 existent questions | Killexams 1Z0-969 braindumps | Killexams HP0-J62 dumps | Killexams 9L0-518 braindumps | Killexams 9A0-385 free pdf | Killexams BAS-012 dumps questions | Killexams 1Z0-567 rehearse test | Killexams 000-105 mock exam | Killexams JK0-022 existent questions | Killexams PEGACSSA rehearse questions | Killexams HP0-Y23 rehearse questions |
In-DepthScale the Datacenter with Windows Server SMB Direct
RDMA networking has enabled high-performance computing for years, but Windows Server 2012 R2 with SMB Direct is bringing it to the mainstream.
File-based storage has grown tremendously over the eventual several years, far outpacing block storage, even as both grow at double-digit rates. Cloud datacenters are deploying file-based protocols at an accelerating pace for virtualized environments, as well as database infrastructure deployed for broad Data applications. The introduction of Server Message block (SMB) 3.0 with the efficiency and performance of the SMB Direct protocol, has opened recent opportunities for file storage in Windows-based datacenters. SMB Direct, a key component of SMB 3.0, can utilize networking based on the Remote Direct remembrance Access (RDMA) protocol to deliver near-SAN-level performance and availability with integrated data protection and optimized data transfer between storage and server (see figure 1).[Click on image for larger view.] figure 1. RDMA networking allows high-speed client to file service data transfers.
RDMA is a specification that has long-provided a means of reducing latency in the transmission of data from one point to another, by placing the data directly into final destination memory, thereby eliminating unnecessary CPU and remembrance bus utilization. Used primarily for high-performance computing (HPC) for more than a decade, RDMA is now on the cusp of becoming a mainstream means of providing a scalable and high-performance infrastructure. A key factor fueling its growing consume is Windows Server 2012 R2 offering several RDMA networking options. I'll review and compare those options within Windows Server 2012 R2 environments.
Windows Scale-Out File ServicesWindows Server 2012 R2 provides massive scale to transform datacenters into an elastic, always-on cloud-like operation designed to elope the largest workloads. The server OS provides automated protection and aims to tender cost-effective commerce continuity to ensure uptime. Windows Server 2012 R2 provides a rich set of storage features letting IT managers waddle to lower-cost industry-standard hardware rather than purpose-built storage devices, without having to compromise on performance or availability. A vital storage capability in Windows Server 2012 R2 is the Scale-Out File Server (SOFS), which allows the storage of server application data, such as Hyper-V virtual machine (VM) files, on SMB file shares. any files shares are online on any nodes simultaneously. This configuration is commonly referred to as an active-active cluster configuration.
A SOFS allows for continuously available file shares. Continuous availability tracks file operations on a highly available file system so that clients can fail over to another node of the cluster without interruption. This is too known as Transparent Failover.
The Role of SMB DirectThe SMB 3.0 protocol in Windows Server 2012 R2 utilizes the Network Direct Kernel (NDK) layer within the Windows Sever OS to leverage RDMA network adapters (see figure 2). Using RDMA enables storage that rivals costly and infrastructure-intensive Fibre Channel SANs in efficiency, with lower latency, while operating over yardstick 10 Gbps and 40 Gbps Ethernet infrastructure. RDMA network adapters tender this performance capability by operating at a line rate with very low latency thanks to CPU bypass and zero copy (the capacity to write directly to the remembrance of the remote storage node using RPCs). In order to obtain these advantages, any transport protocol processing must breathe performed in the adapter hardware, completely bypassing the host OS.[Click on image for larger view.] figure 2. RDMA Networking Configuration on Windows Server 2012 R2.
With NDK, SMB can achieve data transfers direct from memory, through the adapter, to the network, and over to the remembrance of the application requesting data from the file share. This capability is especially useful for I/O-intensive workloads such as Hyper-V or SQL Server, resulting in remote file server performance comparable to local storage.
In contrast, in traditional networking, a request from an application to a remote storage location must waddle through numerous stages and buffers (involving data copies) on both the client and server side, such as the SMB client or server buffers, the transport protocol drivers in the networking stack, and the network card drivers.
With SMB Direct, the RDMA NIC transfers data straight from the SMB client buffer, through the client NIC to the server NIC, and up to the SMB server buffer, and vice versa. This direct transfer operation allows the application to access remote storage at the same performance as local storage.
Windows Server 2012 provides built-in advocate for using SMB Direct with Ethernet RDMA NICs, including iWARP (RDMA/TCP), and RoCE NICs (RDMA/UDP), to advocate high-speed data transfers. These NICs implement RDMA in hardware so that they can transfer data between them without involving the host CPU. As a result, SMB Direct is extremely fleet with client-to-file server performance almost equaling that of using local storage.
RDMA NICs offload the server CPU, resulting in more efficient Microsoft virtualized datacenter installs. Windows Server 2012 SMB Direct 3.0 over RDMA provides higher performance by giving direct access to the data that resides on a remote file server, while the CPU reduction enables a larger number of VMs per Hyper-V server, resulting in CapEx and OpEx savings in power dissipation, system configuration and deployment scale throughout the life of the installation. endemic system software advocate for RDMA networking in Windows Server 2012 R2 simplifies storage and VM management for enterprise and cloud IT administrators, with no network reconfiguration required.
Live migration is an primary VM mobility feature and improving the performance of live migration has been a consistent focus for Windows Server. In Windows Server 2012 R2, Microsoft took these performance improvements to the next level. Live migration with RDMA is a recent feature; it delivers the highest performance for migrations by offloading data transfers to RDMA NIC hardware.
iWARP: RDMA over TCP/IPiWARP is an implementation of RDMA using the ubiquitous Ethernet-TCP/IP networking as the network transport. iWARP NICs implement a hardware TCP/IP stack that eliminates any inefficiencies associated with software TCP/IP processing, while preserving any the benefits of the proven TCP/IP protocol. On the wire, iWARP traffic is thus identical to other TCP/IP applications and requires no special advocate from switches and routers, or changes to network devices. Thanks to the hardware offloaded TCP/IP, iWARP RDMA NICs tender high-performance and low-latency RDMA operation that's comparable to the latest InfiniBand speeds, and endemic integration within today's great Ethernet-based networks and clouds.
iWARP is able to dramatically help upon the most common and widespread Ethernet communications in consume today and deliver on the swear of a single, converged Ethernet network for carrying LAN, SAN, and RDMA traffic with the unrestricted routability and scalability of TCP/IP. Today, 40 Gbps Ethernet (40 GbE) iWARP controllers and adapters are available from Chelsio Communications, while Intel Corp. has too announced plans for availability of iWARP Ethernet controllers integrated within upcoming Intel server chipsets.
The iWARP protocol is the open Internet Engineering assignment obligate (IETF) yardstick for RDMA over Ethernet. iWARP adapters are fully supported by the OpenFabrics Alliance Enterprise Software Distribution (OFED), with no changes needed for applications to migrate from specialized OFED-compliant RDMA fabrics such as InfiniBand to Ethernet.
Initially aimed at high-performance computing applications, iWARP is too now finding a home in datacenters thanks to its availability on high-performance 40 GbE NICs and increased datacenter claim for low latency, high bandwidth, and low server CPU utilization. It has too been integrated into server OSes such as Microsoft Windows Server 2012 with SMB Direct, which can seamlessly capture handicap of iWARP RDMA without user intervention.
InfiniBandInfiniBand is an I/O architecture designed to expand the communication precipitate between CPUs, devices within servers and subsystems located throughout a network. InfiniBand is a point-to-point, switched I/O fabric architecture. Both devices at each finish of a link accommodate plenary access to the communication path. To waddle beyond a point and traverse the network, switches forward into play. By adding switches, multiple points can breathe interconnected to create a fabric. As more switches are added to a network, aggregated bandwidth of the fabric increases.
High-performance clustering architectures accommodate provided the main chance for InfiniBand deployment. Using the InfiniBand fabric as the cluster inter-process communications (IPC) interconnect may boost cluster performance and scalability while improving application response times. However, using InfiniBand requires deploying a part infrastructure in addition to the requisite Ethernet network. The added costs in acquisition, maintenance and management accommodate prompted interest in Ethernet-based RDMA alternatives such as iWARP.
Because it's layered on top of TCP, iWARP is fully compatible with existing Ethernet switching gear that's able to process iWARP traffic out-of-the-box. In comparison, deploying InfiniBand requires environments where two part network infrastructures are installed and managed, as well as specialized InfiniBand to Ethernet gateways for bridging between the two infrastructures.
RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE)The third RDMA networking option is RDMA over Converged Ethernet (RoCE), which essentially implements InfiniBand over Ethernet. RoCE NICs are offered by Mellanox Technologies. Though it utilizes Ethernet cabling, this approach does suffer from deployment vicissitude and costs due to requiring advocate for knotty and expensive Ethernet "lossless" fabrics and Data seat Bridging (DCB) protocols. In addition, RoCE for the longest time lacked routability support, which limited its operation to a single Ethernet subnet.
Instead of using pervasive TCP/IP networking, RoCE relies instead on InfiniBand protocols at Layer 3 (L3) and higher layers in combination with Ethernet at the Link Layer (L2) and Physical Layer (L1). RoCE leverages Converged Ethernet, too known as DCB or Converged Enhanced Ethernet as a lossless physical layer networking medium. RoCE is similar to the Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) protocols in relying on networking infrastructure with DCB protocols. However, such advocate has been viewed a significant impediment to FCoE deployment, which raises similar concerns for RoCE.
The just-released version 2 of the RoCE protocol will find rid of the IB network layer, replacing it with the more commonly used UDP (connectionless) and IP layer to provide routability. However, RoCE v2 does not specify how lossless operation will breathe provided over an IP network, or how congestion control will breathe handled. RoCE v2 currently suffers from an inconsistent premise that continues to require DCB for Ethernet, while no longer operating within the confines of one Ethernet network.
Developed by Datawire, Ambassador is an open source API gateway designed specifically for consume with the Kubernetes container orchestration framework. At its core, Ambassador is a control plane tailored for edge/API configuration for managing the Envoy Proxy “data plane”. Envoy itself is a cloud endemic Layer 7 proxy and communication bus used for handling “edge” ingress and service-to-service networking communication. Although originating from Lyft, Envoy is rapidly becoming the de facto proxy for modern networking, and can breathe institute with practically any of the public cloud vendors offerings, as well as bespoke usage by many great end-user organisations dote eBay, Pinterest and Groupon.
This article provides an insight into the creation of Ambassador, and discusses the technical challenges and lessons scholarly from building a developer-focused control plane for managing ingress traffic within microservice-based applications that are deployed into a Kubernetes cluster.The Emerging “Cloud Native” Fabric: Kubernetes and Envoy
Although the phrase “cloud native” is becoming as much of an overloaded term as “DevOps” and “microservices”, it is increasingly gaining traction throughout the IT industry. According to Gartner, the 2018 worldwide public cloud service revenue forecast was in the region of $175 Billion U.S. Dollars, and this could grow by over 15% next year. Although the current public cloud market is dominated by only a few key players that tender mostly proprietary technologies (and increasingly, and sometimes controversially, open source-as-service), the Cloud endemic Computing Foundation (CNCF) was founded in 2015 by the Linux foundation to provide a spot for discussion and hosting of "open source components of a plenary stack cloud endemic environment".
Possibly learning from the journey previously undertaken by the OpenStack community, the early projects supported by the CNCF were arguably less ambitious in scope, provided clearer (opinionated) abstractions, and were too proven in existent world usage (or inspired by real world usage in the case of Kubernetes). Two key platform components that accommodate emerged from the CNCF are the Kubernetes container orchestration framework, originally contributed by Google, and the Envoy proxy for edge and service-to-service networking, originally donated by Lyft. Even when combined, the two specific technologies don’t provide a plenary Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) offering that many developers want. However, Kubernetes and Envoy are being included within many PaaS-like offerings.
Many PaaS vendors, and also end-user engineering teams, are treating these technologies as the “data plane” for cloud endemic systems: i.e. the piece of the system that does the “heavy-lifting”, such as orchestrating containers and routing traffic based on Layer 7 metadata (such as HTTP URIs and headers, or MongoDB protocol metadata). Accordingly, a lot of innovation and commercial opportunities are focused on creating an effectual “control plane”, which is where the end-user interacts with the technology, specifies configuration to breathe enacted by the data plane, and observes any metrics or logging.
The Kubernetes control plane is largely focused around a train of well-specified REST-like APIs (known simply as “the Kubernetes API”), and the associated ‘kubectl’ CLI tool provides a human-friendly abstraction over these APIs. The Envoy v1 control plane was initially based around JSON config loaded within files, with several loosely-defined APIs that allowed selective updating. These APIs accommodate subsequently evolved into the Envoy v2 API, which provides a train of gRPC-based APIs that are strongly typed via the consume of Protocol Buffers. However, initially there wasn’t an Envoy analogy to the Kubernetes kubectl tool, and this led to challenges in adoption by some teams. Where there are challenges, though, there are too opportunities within the implementation of a human-friendly control plane.“Service Mesh-all-the-things”...Maybe?
If they focus on the networking control plane, it would breathe arduous to miss the emergence of the concept of the “service mesh”. Technologies dote Istio, Linkerd and Consul Connect are aiming to manage cross-cutting service-to-service (“east-west”) traffic within a microservices systems. Indeed, Istio itself is effectively a control plane that enables a user to manage Envoy Proxy as the underlying data plane for managing Layer 7 networking traffic across the mesh. Linkerd offers its own (now Rust-based) proxy as the data plane, and Consul Connect offers both a bespoke proxy and, more recently, advocate for Envoy.
Istio architecture, showing the Envoy Proxy data plane at the top half of the diagram, and the control plane below (image courtesy of Istio documentation)
The primary thing to remember with a service mesh is that the assumption is that you typically exert a high-degree of ownership and control on both parties that are communicating over the mesh. For example, two services may breathe built by part engineering departments but they will typically work for the same organisation, or one service may breathe a third-party application but it is deployed within your trusted network frontier (which may span multiple data centers or Virtual Private Clouds). Here your operations team will typically conform on sensible communication defaults, and service teams will independently configure inter-service routing. In these scenarios you may not fully reliance each service, and you most certainly will want to implement protections dote rate limiting and circuit breaking, but fundamentally you can investigate and change any rank behaviour detected. This is not true, however, for managing edge or ingress (“north-south”) traffic that originates from outside your network boundary.
Cluster “ingress” traffic generally originates from sources outside of your direct control
Any communication originating from outside your trusted network can breathe from a rank actor, with motivations that are intentional (e.g. cyber criminals) or otherwise (e.g. broken client library within a mobile app), and therefore you must set arrogate defenses in place. Here the operations team will specify sensible system defaults, and too fitting these in real-time based on external events. In addition to rate limiting, you probably too want the capacity to configure global and API-specific load shedding, for example, if the backend services or datastores become overwhelmed, and too implement DDoS protection (which may too breathe time- or geographically-specified). Service progress teams too want access to the edge to configure routing for a recent API, to test or release a recent service via traffic shadowing or canary releasing, or other tasks.
As a quick aside, for further discussion on the (sometimes confusing) role of API gateways, Christian Posta has recently published an spicy blog post, “API Gateways Are Going Through an Identity Crisis”. I accommodate too written articles about the role of an API gateway during a cloud/container migration or digital transformation, and how API gateways can breathe integrated with modern continuous delivery patterns.
Although at first glance these service mesh and edge/API gateway consume cases may materialize very similar, they believe there are subtle (and not so subtle) differences, and this impacts the design of the associated inter-service and edge control planes.Designing a Edge Control Plane
The selection of control plane is influenced heavily by the scope of control required, and the persona(s) of the primary people using it. My colleague Rafael Schloming has talked about this before at QCon San Francisco, where he discussed how the requirements to centralise or decentralise control and too the development/operation lifecycle stage in which a service is currently at (prototype, mission captious etc) impacts the implementation of the control plane.
As mentioned above, taking an edge proxy control plane as the example, a centralised operations or SRE team may want to specify globally sensible defaults and safeguards for any ingress traffic. However, the (multiple) decentralised product progress teams working at the front line and releasing functionality will want fine-grained control for their services in isolation, and potentially (if they are embracing the “freedom and responsibility” model) the capacity to override global safeguards locally.
A conscious selection that was made by the Ambassador community was that the primary persona targeted by the Ambassador control plane is the developeror application engineer, and therefore the focus on the control plane was on decentralised configuration. Ambassador was built to breathe Kubernetes-specific, and so a rational selection for specifying edge configuration was nearby to the Kubernetes Service specifications that were contained within YAML files and loaded into Kubernetes via kubectl.
Options for specifying Ambassador configuration included using the Kubernetes Ingress object, writing custom Kubernetes annotations or defining Custom Resource Definitions (CRDs). Ultimately the consume of annotations was chosen, as they were simple and presented a minimal learning curve for the end-user. Using Ingress may accommodate appeared to breathe the most obvious first choice, but unfortunately the specification for Ingress has been stuck in perpetual beta, and other than the “lowest common denominator” functionality for managing ingress traffic, not much else has been agreed upon.
An instance of an Ambassador annotation that demonstrates a simple endpoint-to-service routing on a Kubernetes Service can breathe seen here:kind: Service apiVersion: v1 metadata: name: my-service annotations: getambassador.io/config: | --- apiVersion: ambassador/v0 kind: Mapping name: my_service_mapping prefix: /my-service/ service: my-service spec: selector: app: MyApp ports: - protocol: TCP port: 80 targetPort: 9376
The configuration within the getambassador.io/config should breathe relatively self-explanatory to anyone who has configured an edge proxy, transpose proxy or API gateway before. Traffic sent to the prefix endpoint will breathe “mapped” or routed to the “my-service” Kubernetes service. As this article is primarily focused on the designing and implementation of Ambassador, they won’t cover all of the functionality that can breathe configured, such as routing (including traffic shadowing), canarying (with integration with Prometheus for monitoring) and rate limiting. Although Ambassador is focused on the developer persona, there is too extensive advocate for operators, and centralised configuration can breathe specified for authentication, TLS/SNI, tracing and service mesh integration.
Let’s now eddy their attention back onto the evolution of Ambassador over the past two years.Ambassador < v0.40: Envoy v1 APIs, Templating, and inflamed Restarts
Ambassador itself is deployed within a container as a Kubernetes service, and uses the annotations added to Kubernetes Services as its core configuration model. This approach enables application developers to manage routing as piece of their Kubernetes service definition workflow process (perhaps as piece of a “GitOps” approach). Translating the simple Ambassador annotation config into valid Envoy v1 config is not a trifling task. By design, Ambassador’s configuration isn’t based on the same conceptual model as Envoy’s configuration -- they deliberately wanted to aggregate and simplify operations and config -- and herefore, a unbiased amount of logic within Ambassador translates between one set of concepts to the other.
Specifically when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:
There were many benefits with this initial implementation: the mechanics involved were fundamentally simple, the transformation of Ambassador config into Envoy config was reliable, and the file-based inflamed restart integration with Envoy was dependable.
However, there were too notable challenges with this version of Ambassador. First, although the inflamed restart was effectual for the majority of consume cases, it was not very fast, and some users (particularly those with great application deployments) institute it was limiting the frequency with which they could change their configuration. inflamed restart can too inappropriately drop connections, especially long-lived connections dote WebSockets or gRPC streams.
More crucially, though, the first implementation of the Ambassador-to-Envoy intermediate representation (IR) allowed rapid prototyping but was primitive enough that it proved very difficult to do substantial changes. While this was a pain point from the beginning, it became a captious issue as Envoy shifted to the Envoy v2 API. It was limpid that the v2 API would tender Ambassador many benefits -- as Matt Klein outlined in his blog post, “The universal data plane API” -- including access to recent features and a solution to the connection-drop problem renowned above, but it was too limpid that the existing IR implementation was not capable of making the leap.Ambassador Now: Envoy v2 APIs (with ADS), Intermediate Representations, and Testing with KAT
In consultation with the Ambassador community, the Datawire team (stewarded by Flynn, lead engineer for Ambassador) undertook a redesign of the internals of Ambassador in 2018. This was driven by two key goals. First, they wanted to integrate Envoy’s v2 configuration format, which would enable the advocate of features such as Server designation Indication (SNI), label-based rate limiting, and improved authentication. Second, they too wanted to achieve much more robust semantic validation of Envoy configuration, due to its increasing complexity (which was particularly when configuring Envoy for consume with large-scale application deployments).
We started by restructuring the Ambassador internals more along the lines of a multipass compiler. The class hierarchy was made to more closely mirror the separation of concerns between the Ambassador configuration resources, the IR, and the Envoy configuration resources. Core parts of Ambassador were too redesigned to facilitate contributions from the community outside Datawire. They decided to capture this approach for several reasons. First, Envoy Proxy is a very fleet stirring project, and they realised that they needed an approach where a seemingly minor Envoy configuration change didn’t result in days of reengineering within Ambassador. In addition, they wanted to breathe able to provide semantic verification of configuration.
As they started working more closely with Envoy v2, a testing challenge was quickly identified. As more and more features were being supported in Ambassador, more and more bugs appeared in Ambassador’s handling of less common but completely cogent combinations of features. This drove to creation of a recent testing requirement that meant Ambassador’s test suite needed to breathe reworked to automatically manage many combinations of features, rather than relying on humans to write each test individually. Moreover, they wanted the test suite to breathe fleet in order to maximise engineering productivity.
This meant that as piece of the Ambassador re-architecture, they too created the Kubernetes Acceptance Test (KAT) framework. KAT is an extensible test framework that:
KAT is designed for performance -- it batches test setup upfront, and then runs any the queries in step 3 asynchronously with a high performance HTTP client. The traffic driver in KAT runs locally using one of other open source tools, Telepresence, which makes it easier to debug issues.
With the KAT test framework in place, they quickly ran into some issues with Envoy v2 configuration and inflamed restart, which presented the chance to switch to using Envoy’s Aggregated Discovery Service (ADS) APIs instead of inflamed restart. This completely eliminated the requirement for a process restart upon configuration changes, which previously they had institute could lead to dropped connections under high loads or long-lived connections. They decided to consume the Envoy waddle control plane to interface to the ADS. This did, however, interpose a Go-based dependency to the previously predominantly Python-based Ambassador codebase.
With a recent test framework, recent IR generating cogent Envoy v2 configuration, and the ADS, the major architectural changes in Ambassador 0.50 were complete. Now when a user applies a Kubernetes manifest containing Ambassador annotations, the following steps occur:
Just before release they hit one more issue. On the Azure Kubernetes Service, Ambassador annotation changes were no longer being detected. Working with the highly-responsive AKS engineering team, they were able to identify the issue -- namely, the Kubernetes API server in AKS is exposed through a chain of proxies that was dropping some requests. The proper mitigation for this was to advocate calling the FQDN of the API server, which is provided through a mutating webhook in AKS. Unfortunately, advocate for this feature was not available in the official Kubernetes Python client. They therefore elected to switch to the Kubernetes Golang client -- introducing yet another Go-based dependency.Key Takeaways from building an Envoy Control Plane (Twice!)
As Matt Klein mentioned at the inaugural EnvoyCon, with the current popularity of the Envoy Proxy in the cloud endemic technology domain, it’s often easier to inquire who isn’t using Envoy. They know that Google’s Istio has helped raise the profile of Envoy with Kubernetes users, and any of the other major cloud vendors are investing in Envoy, for example, within AWS App Mesh and Azure Service Fabric Mesh. At EnvoyCon they too heard how several broad players such as eBay, Pinterest and Groupon are migrating to using Envoy as their primary edge proxy. There are too several other open source Envoy-based edge proxy control planes emerging, such as Istio Gateway, Solo.io Gloo, and Heptio Contour. I would squabble that Envoy is indeed becoming the universal data plane of cloud endemic communications, but there is much work noiseless to breathe done within the domain of the control plane.
In this article we’ve discussed how the Datawire team and Ambassador open source community accommodate successfully migrated the Ambassador edge control plane to consume the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs. We’ve scholarly a lot in the process of building Ambassador 0.50, and they are keen to highlight their key takeaways as follows:
Migrating Ambassador to the Envoy v2 configuration and ADS APIs was a long and difficult journey that required lots of architecture and design discussions, and plenty of coding, but early feedback from results accommodate been positive. Ambassador 0.50 is available now, so you can capture it for a test elope and partake your feedback with the community on our Slack channel or on Twitter.About the Author
Daniel Bryant is leading change within organisations and technology, and currently works as a freelance consultant, of which Datawire is a client. His current work includes enabling agility within organisations by introducing better requirement gathering and planning techniques, focusing on the relevance of architecture within agile development, and facilitating continuous integration/delivery. Daniel’s current technical expertise focuses on ‘DevOps’ tooling, cloud/container platforms and microservice implementations. He is too a leader within the London Java Community (LJC), contributes to several open source projects, writes for well-known technical websites such as InfoQ, DZone and Voxxed, and regularly presents at international conferences such as QCon, JavaOne and Devoxx.
3COM [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
AccessData [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACFE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Acme-Packet [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACSM [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ACT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Admission-Tests [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
ADOBE [93 Certification Exam(s) ]
AFP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
AICPA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
AIIM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alcatel-Lucent [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Alfresco [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Altiris [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Amazon [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
American-College [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Android [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
APA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
APICS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Apple [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
AppSense [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
APTUSC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Arizona-Education [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ARM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Aruba [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASIS [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASQ [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
ASTQB [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Autodesk [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Avaya [96 Certification Exam(s) ]
AXELOS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Axis [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Banking [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
BEA [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
BICSI [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlackBerry [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
BlueCoat [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Brocade [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Objects [11 Certification Exam(s) ]
Business-Tests [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CA-Technologies [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certification-Board [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Certiport [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
CheckPoint [41 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIPS [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cisco [318 Certification Exam(s) ]
Citrix [48 Certification Exam(s) ]
CIW [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cloudera [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Cognos [19 Certification Exam(s) ]
College-Board [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CompTIA [76 Certification Exam(s) ]
ComputerAssociates [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Consultant [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Counselor [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institue [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
CPP-Institute [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CSP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
CWNP [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dassault [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
DELL [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
DMI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
DRI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECCouncil [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
ECDL [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
EMC [129 Certification Exam(s) ]
Enterasys [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Ericsson [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
ESPA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Esri [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExamExpress [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Exin [40 Certification Exam(s) ]
ExtremeNetworks [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
F5-Networks [20 Certification Exam(s) ]
FCTC [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Filemaker [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Financial [36 Certification Exam(s) ]
Food [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fortinet [13 Certification Exam(s) ]
Foundry [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
FSMTB [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Fujitsu [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
GAQM [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Genesys [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GIAC [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Google [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
GuidanceSoftware [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
H3C [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
HDI [9 Certification Exam(s) ]
Healthcare [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
HIPAA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hitachi [30 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hortonworks [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hospitality [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
HP [750 Certification Exam(s) ]
HR [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
HRCI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Huawei [21 Certification Exam(s) ]
Hyperion [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAAP [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IAHCSMM [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBM [1532 Certification Exam(s) ]
IBQH [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ICDL [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
IEEE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IELTS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IFPUG [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
IIBA [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IISFA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Intel [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
IQN [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
IRS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISACA [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISC2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISEB [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
Isilon [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
ISM [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
iSQI [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
ITEC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Juniper [64 Certification Exam(s) ]
LEED [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Legato [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Liferay [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Logical-Operations [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Lotus [66 Certification Exam(s) ]
LPI [24 Certification Exam(s) ]
LSI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Magento [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Maintenance [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
McAfee [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
McData [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Medical [69 Certification Exam(s) ]
Microsoft [374 Certification Exam(s) ]
Mile2 [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Military [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Misc [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Motorola [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
mySQL [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
NBSTSA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCEES [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCIDQ [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NCLEX [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Network-General [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
NetworkAppliance [39 Certification Exam(s) ]
NI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
NIELIT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nokia [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Nortel [130 Certification Exam(s) ]
Novell [37 Certification Exam(s) ]
OMG [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
Oracle [279 Certification Exam(s) ]
P&C [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Palo-Alto [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PARCC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PayPal [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Pegasystems [12 Certification Exam(s) ]
PEOPLECERT [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
PMI [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Polycom [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
PostgreSQL-CE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Prince2 [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
PRMIA [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PsychCorp [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
PTCB [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
QAI [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
QlikView [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Quality-Assurance [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
RACC [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Real-Estate [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
RedHat [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RES [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
Riverbed [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
RSA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sair [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
Salesforce [5 Certification Exam(s) ]
SANS [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAP [98 Certification Exam(s) ]
SASInstitute [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
SAT [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCO [10 Certification Exam(s) ]
SCP [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
SDI [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
See-Beyond [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Siemens [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Snia [7 Certification Exam(s) ]
SOA [15 Certification Exam(s) ]
Social-Work-Board [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
SpringSource [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUN [63 Certification Exam(s) ]
SUSE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
Sybase [17 Certification Exam(s) ]
Symantec [134 Certification Exam(s) ]
Teacher-Certification [4 Certification Exam(s) ]
The-Open-Group [8 Certification Exam(s) ]
TIA [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Tibco [18 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trainers [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Trend [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
TruSecure [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
USMLE [1 Certification Exam(s) ]
VCE [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veeam [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Veritas [33 Certification Exam(s) ]
Vmware [58 Certification Exam(s) ]
Wonderlic [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
Worldatwork [2 Certification Exam(s) ]
XML-Master [3 Certification Exam(s) ]
Zend [6 Certification Exam(s) ]
Dropmark : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/11585470
Wordpress : http://wp.me/p7SJ6L-Pn
Issu : https://issuu.com/trutrainers/docs/000-077
Dropmark-Text : http://killexams.dropmark.com/367904/12117517
Blogspot : http://killexamsbraindump.blogspot.com/2017/11/free-pass4sure-000-077-question-bank.html
RSS Feed : http://feeds.feedburner.com/Real000-077QuestionsThatAppearedInTestToday
weSRCH : https://www.wesrch.com/business/prpdfBU1HWO000TBTT
Calameo : http://en.calameo.com/books/0049235260f22a9802bc9
publitas.com : https://view.publitas.com/trutrainers-inc/free-pass4sure-000-077-question-bank
Box.net : https://app.box.com/s/jh7horh2ka4cwvgecphnsptmynel0fyn
zoho.com : https://docs.zoho.com/file/5psibc431b739a4594fcf8d317d60459c6bbe